Friday, April 29, 2011

The SIG Model 1920 submachine gun

The SIG Model 1920 submachine gun was a licensed copy of the modified Bergmann / Schmeisser MP.18/I submachine gun. It was produced in Switzerland by famous arms-making factory SIG in Neuhausen, between 1920 and 1927. SIG Model 1920 differed from its German-made prototype by having magazine of greater capacity, and different calibers (7.65 Parabellum and 7.63 Mauser). Each SIG model 1920 submachine gun was marked "Brevet Bergmann" (Bergmann patent) on the top of the magazine housing. The version of the SIG M1920 in 7.65 Luger caliber was sold to Finland. Versions in the 7.63 Mauser caliber were sold to Japan and China.

 SIG Model 1920 "Brevet Bergmann" submachine gun.

In 1930 SIG introduced an improved version of this design, which differed in the placement of the magazine (on the right side), and also had a detachable forward vertical grip below the stock. This was made to avoid users gripping the long magazine with left hand, which could result in feeding problems.

SIG Model 1930 submachine gun.

The SIG Model 1920 "Brevet Bergmann" submachine gun is a blowback operated, full automatic only weapon that fires from open bolt. Tubular receiver is attached to the front of the wooden stock, and could be pivoted barrel down for maintenance and disassembly. Magazine is inserted from the left (right on Model 1930) side. The manual safety consisted of the L-shaped cut, made at the rear of the cocking handle slot. This cut was used to lock the bolt in its rearward position by putting the cocking handle into the cut. Barrel was enclosed into the tubular jacket, perforated for better cooling. SIG submachine guns, purchased by Japan, were also fitted with bayonet mount. The rifle-type stock was made from wood. The rear sight was of tangent type, adjustable from 100 to 1000 meters range.

Caliber 7.65x22 Luger / Parabellum, 7.63x25 Mauser
Weight 4.1 kg empty
Length 840 mm
Barrel length 210 mm
Rate of fire 600 rounds per minute
Magazine capacity 50 rounds

Wednesday, April 27, 2011

Experimental Aircrafts of WW2 by Bell Aircraft

The experimental XFM-1 Airacuda by Bell Aircraft

In the same way that the XFM-1 Airacuda was a "different" sort of aircraft, the Bell company itself was "different sort" of aircraft maker. Know more for its unique elements in the P-39 Airacobra piston-engine fighter of World War 2 to the Bell helicopter designs afterwards, the company made a splash onto the aircraft engineering stage with the introduction of their ambitious bomber hunter known as the XFM-1 "Airacuda". The aircraft would mark the company's introduction onto the world stage and - despite the design being a general failure - prove to the world that Bell was revolutionary company putting dreams into practice.

The XFM-1 Airacuda was the Bell Aircraft firms first foray into aircraft design, proving it was a different sort of aircraft maker.

Externally, the XFM-1 featured a cutting-edge approach to design when compared to its contemporaries of the late 1930's. If Bell wanted attention with its first attempt, it definitely got it when unveiling the Airacuda. The aircraft was designed as a type of bomber interceptor or - perhaps more precisely - a bomber destroyer. The system would field a variety of heavy caliber weaponry, be able to carry bombs aloft and accommodate a crew of 5. The design was expected to provide considerable speed, range and firepower to fulfill its bomber-destroying purposes.

Being a generally all-new design altogether - nothing in the skies at the time remotely attempted to accomplish what the Airacuda set out to do - the Airacuda became a victim of its own ambition.

Power was derived from a pair of Allison V-1710-41 liquid-cooled supercharged V12 engines delivering a lofty 1,150 horsepower each. Despite the adequate output for these engines, the system was designed as a "pusher" type meaning that the propellers were mounted to the rear of each nacelle and thus "pushed" the plane through the air instead of pushing it like traditional piston engines operated. Pusher type engines have been attempted a whole World War before but the performance was drastically lower than its puller counterparts. Pusher-type engine systems also had a nasty habit of overheating consistently, shortening their operational life and opening the system up to mechanical failures. Initially, Larry Bell envisioned his aircraft to fly 300 miles per hour at about 20,000 feet with turbosupercharged Allison engines. This was drastically cut when the Air Corps ordered a scaled-down Allison to be used instead with the reason being that the turbosupercharger proved quite volatile and explosive in the YFM-1 when tested. This effectively destroyed any performance the Airacuda could achieve, bring the ceiling down to a paltry 12,000 feet and a top speed barely reaching 270 miles per hour.

All systems were eventually scrapped with only 1 prototype and 12 production models ever existing.

Design-wise, the Airacuda played every bit the part of revolutionary design. Beyond the crewed nacelles, at least three Airacuda's produced were operating the soon-to-be Bell trademark of tricycle landing gears (though these systems experienced their share of mechanical issues in the development). Wings were rounded at the edges and ran through each nacelle into the wing roots connecting the wing systems onto the forward portion of the fuselage. The nose section had a glazed canopy and the fuselage was streamlined, ending aft with a traditional T-style setup. In all, the Airacuda was most assuredly a different sort of aircraft.

The idea of providing the aircraft with rear-mounted propellers, however, lay in the ability for the forward portion of each nacelle to mount devastating weaponry. In this case, the Airacuda was built around the ability to field a powerful 37mm cannon in each nacelle position, manned by a crewmember. Effectively, the crewmembers assigned to each nacelle were cut off from interaction from their fuselage comrades. Additional weaponry consisted of 2 x 12.7mm heavy caliber air-cooled machine guns and 2 x 7.62mm general purpose machine guns. Armament-wise, the Airacuda had the firepower to contend with any bomber - current or future. The problem with this thinking was in the underperforming engines. Basically, the Airacuda lacked the speed and maneuverability to contend with other enemy fighters. This made the Airacuda a liability unto itself. The system would never have been able to be sent on its own to tackle enemy bombers. Should the need arise to combat the swift new breed of enemy fighters, the Airacuda was nothing more than a sitting duck to enemy fire. Additionally, the slow performing Airacuda could barely keep pace - if at all - with the crop of bombers in service with America. This no doubt sealed the fate of the Airacuda in terms of it becoming a long-term fixture in American military planning.

As formidable as the 37mm cannon armament sounded in theory, in practice it proved to be another matter altogether. It was found that a considerable amount of smoke filled the nacelle crew members position when the armament was fired. Additionally, these poor fellows were also at the mercy of the rest of the crew if (and when) it was time to evacuate the aircraft in an emergency as the propeller blades were seated directly behind each nacelle. A procedure was devised to have the pilot feather out each prop and small controlled explosives were provided to jettison the systems as well. The aircraft also proved dangerous to operate on a single engine - something the later (and more "traditional") designs seemed to overcome. The aircraft proved a handful to fly, though not terrible to the core. Pilots reported much work to keep the aircraft pleased and flying properly but landing was less of a chore and quite stable. The electrical internal components were highly complex and dangerous to the extent that a single outage would knock out more than one vital system.

Despite these major shortcomings - and at least two being lost to accidents - the Airacuda nevertheless fielded one entire operational squadron though only operating in 1938 through 1940 and were eventually removed from service in 1942 - used as nothing more than ground crew trainers. Beyond several photo opportunities across the country to drum up support, the Airacuda never fulfilled its purpose of bomber-interceptor and destroyer and never would see combat action in the Second World War.

In many ways a major setback, the Airacuda brought some well-deserved attention to the Bell Aircraft company. The firm would go on to design and produce the more well-known Airacobra and KingCobra - two designs that would serve the Soviets very well in their war with Germany. In the end, the Airacuda would become nothing more than trivia lore in the realm of US military aviation.

Specifications for the Bell XFM-1 Airacuda
Length: 44.85ft (13.67m)
Width: 69.85ft (21.29m)
Height: 13.58ft (4.14m)

Maximum Speed: 277mph (446kmh; 241kts)
Maximum Range: 2,600miles (4,184km)
Rate-of-Climb: 0ft/min (0m/min)
Service Ceiling: 30,512ft (9,300m; 5.8miles)

Armament Suite:
2 x 12.7mm machine guns
2 x 7.62mm machine guns
1 x 37mm cannon in left engine nacelle
1 x 37mm cannon in right engine nacelle

2 x 300lb conventional drop bombs
Accommodation: 5
Hardpoints: 2
Empty Weight:13,375lbs (6,067kg)
Maximum Take-Off Weight:17,333lbs (7,862kg)

Engine(s): 2 x Allison V-1710-41 liquid-cooled supercharged V12 "pusher" engines delivering 1,150hp each.

The experimental X-1 rocket-propelled aircraft by Bell Aircraft

The Bell X-1 became quite possibly the most important American research aircraft of the 20th Century.

Specifically designed to be airdropped from a B-29 Superfortress, the X-1 would then power up its rocket-propelled thruster and hit speeds in excess of Mach 1. By the end of its production run, vast amounts of aeronautical data would be compiled, leading up to the modern age of turbojet and turbofan-powered flight.

The Bell X-1 was an advanced technology demonstrator that became the  first aircraft in the history of aviation to break the speed of sound.

The X-1 had its origins in a 1945 agreement between the United States Army Air Force and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics to develop a technological demonstrator to research kinetic heating of airframes at supersonic flight speeds. Though turbojet technology was already advancing all over the world, the decision was made to try the design with a liquid fuel rocket system which would be switched on upon being dropped in flight by a mother ship (in this case a Boeing B-29).

The Bell X-1 design was fundamental to the core, featuring a single rudder atop a tail assembly that held straight surfaces.

The main wing assemblies were also designed straight but engineered to be as thin as operationally possible and limit drag. The cockpit was forged straight into the fuselage design with the fuselage appearing quite enlarged to house the required amount of fuel for the rocket booster. A powered tricycle landing gear system was implemented and stowed into the fuselage when in flight.

With three X-1's produced and delivered, the first free-fall flight  occurred in 1946 with the first powered flight achieved in 1947.

The powered 1947 flight saw Captain Charles "Chuck" Yeager at the controls as he broke the sound barrier, hitting speeds of Mach 1 at over 40,000 feet. Later tests would see a leap into speeds of Mach 2.4 and an impressive altitude flight of 90,000 feet by 1954.

The trans-sonic research aircraft was one of the first true groundbreaking research aircraft of the Cold War.

Though several X-1's were lost for various reasons, the X-1 series as a whole served up priceless data for researchers that would bring about new engineering marvels in terms of military and civilian aviation.

Specifications for the Bell X-1

Length: 31.00ft (9.45m)
Width: 28.02ft (8.54m)
Height: 0.00ft (0.00m)

Maximum Speed: 967mph (1,556kmh; 840kts)
Rate-of-Climb: 0ft/min (0m/min)
Service Ceiling: 80,000ft (24,384m; 15.2miles)

Armament Suite:
None. Internal provision housing flight data and test equipment.
Accommodation: 1
Hardpoints: 0
Empty Weight:8,100lbs (3,674kg)
Maximum Take-Off Weight:13,400lbs (6,078kg)

Engine(s): 1 x Reaction Motors E6000-C4 (Thiokol XLR-11) four barrel liquid fuel rocket generating 6,000lbs of standard thrust.

The experimental X-5 Swing-Wing aircraft by Bell Aircraft

Bell engineers studied the captured German Messerschmitt Me P.1011 fighter after World War 2 to achieve the impressive X-5 design.

Its roots originated in the German Messerschmitt Me P.1101 of which the X-5 borrowed heavily from in terms of overall design. The jet-powered P.1101 was captured by American ground forces as Germany began giving up ground in the latter years of World War 2. Though the P.1101 was only 80% complete at the time of the American arrival, it made use of basic wing sweep principles to trial a variety of wing postures during its development. However, the infant German system relied on changes to the wing sweep while the aircraft was still on the ground. Only two X-5 prototypes were ever produced with the second being lost to accident. The X-5 program was being considered for an American/NATO low-cost tactical fighter initiative.

The X-5 was an experimental single-seat, single-engine, jet-powered fighter design prototype produced by the Bell Aircraft company and became the first aircraft to make use of in-flight variable geometry wings.

The X-5 program went on to prove the viability inherent in such technology in accordance to increasing maximum speeds, decreasing landing speeds and assisting in a better rate-of-climb - all from one wing system. The X-5 proved helpful to the Americans in the collecting of data at these varying wing sweeps at both subsonic and transonic speeds. Such technology would become the trademarks of upcoming Cold War-era combat aircraft like the Grumman F-14 Tomcat, the General Dynamics F-111 Aardvark and the Rockwell B-1 Bomber. Additionally, the British Panavia Tornado and the Soviet MiG-23/27 would also make use of the "swing-wing" approach.

In the X-5, the pilot was given full control of over the sweep of his aircraft's wings while in-flight. As such, he could adapt the sweep to the action at hand, be it take-off, landing or cruise - and supply more or less drag to the airframe as needed.

The Messerschmitt Me P.1101 itself was born out of the "Emergency Fighter Competition" instilled by the German Air Ministry (RLM) in the middle of 1944. The program essentially halted all production on bombers and instead focused on high-performance defensive-minded fighters to help defend Germany against the relentless Allied bombing campaigns wreaking havoc on her war-making infrastructure - Germany was now more or less embroiled in a defensive war and this along two major fronts. A new specification came down for the development of 2nd generation of German jet-powered fighters and Messerschmitt jumped on board within days. After two initial Messerschmitt designs were penciled, a finalized third design proposal was selected for development. The P.1101 was to have a deep fuselage to make room for the engine, applicable ductwork, the cockpit pressurization equipment, cannon armament and internal fuel. The fuselage would feature a nose-mounted intake to aspirate the Heinkel-Hirth He S 011 turbojet engine to be installed and wings were to be shoulder mounted assemblies with noticeable sweep - in fact, the wings were lifted from the revolutionary Messerschmitt Me 262 jet fighter-bomber. The single-seat cockpit would be fitted well ahead in the fuselage under a three-piece bubble canopy and a retractable tricycle undercarriage was utilized - the main landing gear legs coming from a Messerschmitt BF 109K fighter. The tail section was to be of a conventional type with a single vertical tail fin and applicable horizontal planes all made of wood. The tail assembly was fitted onto a tapered boom formed atop the engine exhaust port. Plans were made for cockpit armoring, carriage of four wire-guided missiles and a recessed centerline fuselage position for a single bomb.

Robert Woods and Bell Aircraft unveiled their similar X-5 in the early 1950s.

To help speed development of the P.1101 along, it was decided to construct the P.1101 V1 prototype alongside the wind tunnel and other data collection still ongoing. The P.1101 V1 design was also given wings that would adjust their sweep preflight and could test wing sweep at 35- and 45-degree angles. The wings were eventually set to test sweep at positions of 35-, 40- and 45-degrees. First flight was slated for sometime in June 1945 if all went as planned. All development and construction was to take place at the largely unknown Messerschmitt facility at Oberammergau nestled in the Bavarian mountains of Southern Germany. The Allies had no knowledge of the facility and therefore the area was relatively free of Allied air strikes.

The major difference in the Bell mount was in the use of in-flight variable geometry wings, this made possible by a collection of electric motors within a system as designed by Bell engineers.

However, the Americans were making tremendous headway into the region at the time. For fear of the P.1101 data falling into enemy hands, Messerschmitt employees moved the information into microfilm form and hid them in four locations at neighboring villages. The Allies moved into the area on April 29th, 1945 with the Americans taking Oberammergau - actually being somewhat surprised that the Messerschmitt facility even existed. The Me P.1101 V1 prototype was found tucked away in a tunnel and quickly secured by the Americans. It was only later that Messerschmitt employees revealed the missing data and their locations. However, by this time, the French Army had moved in and found the hidden P.1101 data, subsequently shipping them back to French authorities. A joint American-German effort led by Robert Woods of Bell Aircraft and Woldermar Voight of Messerschmitt to secure the microfilm and finish the P.1101 fell on deaf ears - the French, it would seem, maintained little interest in assisting their former conquerors.

The wing arrangement allowed the X-5 the capability to adjust wing sweep between three pre-set positions of 20-, 40- and 60-degree angles as needed, making her a more complex form of the German type.

As such, the P.1101 made its way stateside. Along the journey, she encountered a myriad of abuses at the hands of the teams charged with transporting her. Not only had exposure to the elements taken their toll on the P.1011 airframe, she was essentially man-handled by the founding GIs eager for picture-taking opportunities. All was compounded when the P.1101 airframe prototype fell off of her transporting railcar - sustaining enough damage that ensured the V1 prototype would never be able to fly. Nevertheless, Bell Aircraft proceeded to break down the P.1101 to the seams and fitted the V1 with mock cannon armament along her fuselage sides and an American Allison J35 turbojet engine. The P.1101 V1 still served in valuable static ground tests before she was given over to the scrapman's torch sometime in the 1950s - ending the legacy of the German aircraft.

The X-5 was fitted with a single Allison J35-A-17 turbojet engine of 4,900lbs thrust.

The first prototype (50-1838) was completed on February 15th, 1951 and first flown on June 20th, 1951. A second prototype (50-1839) followed into the air on December 10th, 1951. Both airframes accounted for some 200 total flights with the first prototype netting 133 flights alone. All three wing sweep positions were trialed on the first prototype's ninth flight with success.

Maximum speed was listed between 690 and 716 miles per hour with a cruise speed of about 600 miles per hour.

A reported service ceiling of 50,700 feet (hence the pressurized cockpit) was given as was a listed range between 500 and 750 miles. She maintained an empty weight of 6,336lbs and a maximum take-off weight (MTOW) of 9,980lbs when fully-fueled. No armament was ever installed. Her variable wing sweep gave her a 32 foot, 9 inch span when extended and a 22 foot, 8 inch span when swept.

The cause was believed to be the positioning of the tail section wihtin the design and compounded by the position of the vertical tail fin itself. As the wing sweep changed, essentially the entire aerodynamic qualities of the aircraft changed with it. The resulting action could lead the aircraft into an irrecoverable spin - this eventually occurring on October 14th, 1953 - the second prototype was lost to such a spin while running its wing sweep at 60-degrees, killing Air Force test pilot Captain Ray Popson in the process. As such, the program was shelved and ultimately cancelled by the USAF killing any chances of the X-5 becoming the low-cost tactical fighter the Americans envisioned. Testing did, however, continue on with the first prototype into 1955 to which the aircraft served out the rest of her term as a chase plane until early 1958 - her variable wing sweep proving helpful in keeping pace with various other aircraft under development.

In practice, it was soon found that the X-5 inherited some particularly vicious stall-spin instability characteristics - perhaps the price of basing such a project on the incomplete German program.

The remaining Bell X-5 was handed over to the National Museum of the United States Air Force in Dayton, Ohio, in March of 1958 where it resides even today as part of the Research & Development Gallery at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base.

Some of the flight data garnered from the X-5 program directly served in the development of the Grumman F-14 Tomcat and the General Dynamics F-111 Aardvark "swing-wing" combat production aircraft, though the Bell's particular internal wing sweep mechanism was completely revamped for these two advanced aircraft designs.

It is of note that the Saab 29 "Tunnan" shares striking similarities to both the Messerschmitt Me P.1101 and the Bell X-5. 

Specifications for the Bell X-5

Length: 33.14ft (10.1m)
Width: 33.46ft (10.20m)
Height: 11.81ft (3.60m)

Maximum Speed: 715mph (1,150kmh; 621kts)
Maximum Range: 750miles (1,207km)
Rate-of-Climb: 0ft/min (0m/min)
Service Ceiling: 49,869ft (15,200m; 9.4miles)

Armament Suite:
Accommodation: 1
Hardpoints: 0
Empty Weight:6,349lbs (2,880kg)
Maximum Take-Off Weight:10,000lbs (4,536kg)

Engine(s): 1 x Allison J35-A-17 turbojet engine developing 4,900lbs of thrust.

Tuesday, April 26, 2011

Carl Gustaf M/45 submachine gun

This submachine gun had been developed by Swedish state-owned Carl Gustaf Arms company in 1945. It is long out of production but still in service with Swedish Army, and was manufactured under license in Indonesia and Egypt (under the name of "Port Said"). Carl Gustaf M/45 submachine gun is a simple and well-designed weapon, made in a typical Swedish manner -that is, very durable and reliable.

Original Carl Gustaf Kpist M/45 submachine gun with detachable magazine housing.

Carl Gustaf Kpist M/45 submachine gun (Kpist stands for Kulsprutepistol-submachine gun in Swedish) is a relatively simple, blowback operated, full automatic onlyf irearm that fires from open bolt. The receiver is made from steel tube, the separate barrel jacket is also made from perforated steel tube.Original M/45 submachine guns had removable magazine housings of two types - one for Finnish Suomi-type 50-round four-column magazines, and another - for proprietary 36-round two columns magazines. Later, the Suomi magazines were dropped from service, and the M/45B variant appeared with fixed magazine housings. The manual safety is made in the form of a hook-shaped cut made at the rear of the cocking handle slot; it is used to engage cocking handle when bolt is in retracted position. The sights consist of front blade and flip-type rear sight, marked for 100 and 200 meters.Shoulder stock is made from thin steel tubing and folds forward and to the right.

 Carl Gustaf Kpist M / 45B submachine gun with fixed magazine housing.

Carl Gustaf M/45B submachine gun fitted with typical Swedish accessory - a catcher bag for spent cases.

Caliber: 9x19mm Luger/Parabellum/NATO
Weight: 3.43 kg empty
Length (stock closed/open): 552 / 806 mm
Barrel length: 203 mm
Rate of fire: 600 rounds per minute
Magazine capacity: 36 or 50 rounds
Effective range: 200 meters

Monday, April 25, 2011

The Lmg-Pist 41 submachine gun by Rudolf Furrer

The Lmg-Pist 41 (Leichtes Maschinengewehr Pistole - light machine gun- pistol) submachine gun was developed by Rudolf Furrer at Swiss state-owned Waffenfabrik Bern (W+F) arms factory. It was produced for army trials and hastily adopted in 1941 over four other contestants, with the main reasons for adoption being, most probably, the similarity of the design to the already adopted and proven 7.5mm Lmg 25 light machine gun of the same designer and the importance and influence of the designer Col. Furrer, who at the time was superintendent of the W+F factory. The Lmg-Pist 41 submachine gun was so complicated and expensive to make that only few were made before 1944, when it was somewhat improved and designated Lmg-Pist 41/44. despite improvements, itwas still one of the most complicated and expensive submachine guns of its time,and less than 10,000 Lmg-Pist 41/44 submachine guns were made in total at W+F before production was terminated in favor of less complicated and more affordable MP 43/44 submachine gun, a license-built version of the Finnish SuomiM31 submachine gun made in Switzerland by Hispano-Suiza. Remaining Lmg-Pist41/44 submachine guns served with Swiss army until late ninety sixties or even longer.

Very early model of the Furrer recoil-operated submachine gun made at W+F, dated back to early post-WW1 period, caliber 7.65x22 Luger.

The Lmg-Pist 41/44 submachine gun uses short-recoil operated action with locked bolt. It fires from an open bolt (the barrel also is held back when gun is cocked, and it is released only when the trigger is pressed). Barrel locking is achieved by using a modified Maxim-type toggle-lock.Unlocking (breaking of the toggle) is controlled by an additional third link, which connects the rear end of the toggle with the frame. Upon recoil, the toggle opens to the left, therefore receiver has a large window in its left wall, which is also used as the ejection window.

 W+F MP 41/44 Furrer submachine gun, right side.

The specific aspect of the Furrer system, as compared to other short-recoil operated guns (toggle-locked and others), is that the bolt and barrel are mechanically linked for the entire cycle of the action,not just through its “locked” part. This means that the entire movement of the bolt is controlled by the recoiling movement of the barrel,although the bolt recoil velocity is necessarily much higher than recoil velocity of the barrel. This linkage results in constant and accurate timing between all moving parts; another benefit is the greater reliability of the system, as the entire mass of the recoiling barrel is used to move the bolt through the whole operating cycle. The drawback is the very close tolerances necessary in the linkage system to achieve proper timing, which increases the cost of the weapon, and considering the relatively low power of the 9x19 ammunition used in this gun (compared to original Lmg 25 machine gun that fired full-power7.5x55cartridges) it appears to be a gross engineering over-kill for a submachine gun.The feed was from box magazines, inserted horizontally from the right, wooden stock was fitted with pistol grip and folding forward vertical grip.

  W+F MP 41/44 Furrer submachine gun, left side.

 Diagram explaining Furrer's toggle link short recoil operated action.

Caliber 9x19mm Luger / Parabellum
Weight 5.2 kg unloaded
Length (stock closed/open) 760 mm
Barrel length 270 mm
Rate of fire 900 rounds per minute
Magazine capacity 40 rounds
Effective range 200 meters

Friday, April 22, 2011

The Rexim Favor submachine by the Swiss company Rexim S.A.

The Rexim Favor submachine gun was developed in the early 1950s by the Swiss company Rexim S.A. Some sources claim that in fact this weapon was designed in France, but its plans were stolen from French MAT factory and carried over to Switzerland. Production of this weapon was contracted to the Spanish company La Coruna, although all sales were handled by the Swiss company. About 5 thousands of these submachine guns were manufactured between 1955 and 1957, but due to the lack of sales Rexim company went bankrupt. During 1960s, at least some of these submachine guns ended up in Turkey, being used by Turkish army. Overall, this weapon was overly complicated, and despite being offered in many versions, it found no takers except the already mentioned Turkish military.

Rexim Favor submachine gun in one of the original configurations, with skeletonized butt and spike-type bayonet (in stored position).

The Rexim Favor submachine gun is a simple blowback weapon that fires from closed bolt. It has a separate annular striker which is operated by separate spring of large diameter, that is located around the bolt return spring. Gun fires in single shots or full automatic, thanks to the fire mode selector located above the front of the trigger guard on the right side of the gun. One noticeable feature of the Rexim Favor submachine gun is that its barrel can be easily removed by unscrewing the barrel nut and pulling the barrel forward. Several barrel lenghts were offered with this machine gun, with or without ventilated barrel shroud and muzzle compensator. Feed was from detachable double-stack box magazines with single feed position. Standard sights were adjustable for range from 50 to 500 meters. Guns were offered with skeletonized, side-folding metallic buttstocks or with solid wooden buttstocks. Another unusual feature of the Rexim Favor guns was the integral spike bayonet, which was carried below the barrel and pointing to the rear when not required, and re-installed pointing forward when the hand-to-hand combat was imminent.

Extensively reworked Rexim Favor submachine gun with fixed butt and switch-blade type bayonet, as used by Turkish army in late 1960s.

Caliber 9x19mm Luger / Parabellum
Weight 3.8 kg empty
Length (stock closed/open) 610 / 870 mm
Barrel length 340 mm
Rate of fire 600 rounds per minute
Magazine capacity 32 rounds

Wednesday, April 20, 2011

Karl-Gerät (040/041): self-propelled siege mortar

"Karl-Gerät" (040/041) (German literally "Karl-device"), also known as, Thor and Mörser Karl, was a World War II German self-propelled siege mortar (Mörser) designed and built by Rheinmetall. It was the largest self-propelled weapon to see service. Its heaviest munition was a 60 cm diameter, 2,170 Kg shell, and its range for its lightest shell (1,250 Kg) was just over 10 km. Each gun had to be accompanied by a crane, a heavy transport trailer, and several modified tanks to carry shells.

60 cm Karl-Gerät "Ziu" firing in Warsaw, August 1944.

Seven guns were built, but only six saw combat between 1941 and 1945. It was used in attacking the Soviet fortresses of Brest-Litovsk and Sevastopol, bombarded Polish resistance fighters in Warsaw and participated in the Battle of the Bulge and the attacks against the Remagen Bridgehead. Only two exist today, the others were scrapped after the war.

A dud shell fired during the Warsaw Uprising.

In March 1936 Rheinmetall made a proposal for a super-heavy howitzer to attack the Maginot Line. Their initial concept was for a weapon that would be transported by several tracked vehicles and assembled on site, but the lengthy preparation time drove them to change it to a self-propelled weapon in January 1937. Extensive driving trials took place in 1938 and 1939 using the first Neubaufahrzeug tank prototype and a scale model to investigate the extremely high ground pressure and steering of such an enormous vehicle. Firing trials took place in June 1939. The full-scale driving trials were held at Unterlüss in May 1940. General Karl Becker of the Artillery was involved in the development, from whom the huge weapon gained its nickname.

A section of three 54 cm Karl-Geräte in the field. The Munitionsschlepper is shown on the right.

In total, seven Karl-Geräte howitzers were manufactured. The first six had the nicknames "Adam", "Eva", "Thor", "Odin", "Loki", and "Ziu"; the seventh, the research and test weapon (Versuchs-Gerät), had no name. Delivery of the six production vehicles took place from November 1940 to August 1941.

Karl-Gerät at the Kubinka Tank Museum, Russia.

In February 1941, discussions commenced concerning increasing the range of the weapon, and in May 1942, 54 cm barrels (Gerät 041) were ordered for the six vehicles. At a conference with Hitler in March 1943 it was stated that the first 54 cm Gerät 041 would be delivered by June 1943, and the third, by mid-August. Only three of the 54 cm barrels were actually completed and they could be mounted on Nr. I, IV, and V, although any vehicle could be converted to use the smaller weapon.

Twenty-two Panzer IV Ausf. D, E and F chassis were modified with a superstructure capable of carrying four shells that replaced the turret and outfitted with a crane as Munitionsschlepper ammunition transporters/loaders. Two or three of these Munitionsschlepper were assigned to each weapon.


* Gerät 040: original model, armed with a short 60 centimetres (24 in) caliber barrel;
* Gerät 041: later model, armed with a long (L/11.55) 54 centimetres (21 in) caliber barrel.

The 124 ton vehicle was propelled by a Daimler-Benz MB 503 A 12-cylinder liquid-cooled gasoline engine or a MB 507 C 12 cylinder liquid-cooled diesel engine, but this was mainly used for aiming (the mount had only 4 degrees of traverse on each side) as the engines provided a top speed of only 6.2 miles per hour (10 km/h). For longer distances the Karl-Gerät was disassembled using a special 35 t (34 LT; 39 ST) mobile crane into seven loads. The chassis was loaded onto a six-axle Culemeyer-Strassenroller lowboy trailer. The other parts of the gun were lighter and used four-axle trailers. If the trailer with the chassis on board had to cross a bridge that couldn't carry their combined weight the chassis had to be off-loaded and driven across under its own power. The weapon was moved long distances via rail on a variant of a Schnabel car; the whole chassis was hung between two huge pedestal-mounted swiveling arms fixed to five-axle bogies. When it reached its destination, the weapon was detached from its supporting arms, driven to its intended firing location, then the chassis was lowered to the ground to distribute the recoil forces more evenly in preparation for firing. The Karl-Gerät proved to have no problems moving over normal soil, but under no circumstances was it allowed to make turns on soft soil lest it throw a track. The chassis had to be backed into position to fire, which expedited movement to a new position, but the firing position had to be precisely leveled and the approach route prepared ahead of time to fill in soft spots and any ditches, etc. It could only be loaded at zero elevation, so it had to be re-aimed between every shot.

A Karl-Gerät ready for road transport aboard its Culemeyer trailer.

On 3 January 1941 Heavy Battery (schwere Batterie) 833 was created at the Bergen training ground and ordered to be combat ready by 15 February 1941. On 2 April 1941 it was expanded into Heavy Artillery Battalion (schwere Artillerie Bataillon) 833. The original Batterie 833 was redesignated as the first battery of the new battalion and a new second battery was formed, each battery having two howitzers, with orders to be combat ready by 1 May 1941 in preparation for Operation Barbarossa. Initially a single battery was to be deployed against the Soviet fortress at Brest-Litovsk, but that was changed by 14 May 1941 when the other battery was to ordered to attack the Soviet border fortifications near Lviv. The first battery was assigned to IV Army Corps of 17th Army of Army Group South near Lviv while the second battery was ordered to support the attack by the 4th Army of Army Group Center against the Brest Fortress. The batteries were issued 60 and 36 rounds respectively.

Little is known of First Battery's operations except that IV Army Corps reported on 23 June that the battery was no longer needed and was no longer operational due to technical deficiencies. Second Battery's weapons had some assembly problems, issues with the electrical firing mechanism and non-standard ammunition, not surprising for the Karl-Gerät's combat debut, but managed to fire 31 of their 36 rounds by 24 June. It was ordered home that day by Army Group Center where the battalion was ordered to reform with eight 21 cm Mörser 18 howitzers on 6 August 1941.

In preparation for the attack on Sevastopol scheduled for the early summer Heavy Artillery Battalion 833 was ordered to form a Karl-Batterie with three weapons on 18 February 1942, two of which were "Thor" and "Odin". Camouflaged firing positions 15 metres (49 ft) long, 10 metres (33 ft) wide and 3 metres (9.8 ft) deep had to be dug for each howitzer to minimize Soviet counter-fire before they could move into position. On 20 May 1942 11th Army reported all three Karl-Geräte were at the front with a total of 72 heavy and 50 light concrete-piercing shells. LIV Army Corps reported that 19 heavy shells were fired between 2 and 6 June, 54 on 7 June and all 50 light shells between 8 and 13 June. More shells (29 heavy and 50 light) shipped to the battery before the end of the month. All 50 light shells were fired on 30 June and 25 heavy shells the following day. Many of these shells were fired at the two 305 millimetres (12.0 in) twin-gun armored turrets of the Maxim Gorkii coast defense battery, although shells fired at the turrets had little effect other than to jam one of the turrets and possibly knock out electrical power to the turrets, both of which were repaired without too much trouble. They did rather more damage to the concrete structure supporting the turrets as well as the command center located some 600 meters away (called the Bastion by the Germans). On 19 July 1942 the battery was ordered to ship their weapons to Hillersleben for refurbishment. One dud was recovered by the Soviets and flown to Moscow for evaluation.

28 August, building hit by 2-ton mortar shell from a Karl-Gerät.

On 7 July 1942 Heavy Artillery Battalion 833 was ordered to form another battery with one or two Karl-Geräte. This was done by 15 August as schwere Batterie 628 (Karl) with two weapons, although sufficient personnel to man three guns was to be furnished by Heavy Artillery Battalion 833. On 22 July the Army High Command (Oberkommando des Heeres (OKH)) issued an order to send the battery to Army Group North to support its planned offensive, Operation George (Unternehmen Georg), against Leningrad. The order for Georg, dated 22 August, specified Battery 628 with three guns, presumably with two operational guns and one in reserve was to participate. Army Group North reported the battery's arrival on 1 and 2 September 1942, but the Soviets preempted Georg with heavy attacks against the German forces besieging Leningrad so the Karl-Geräte didn't get into action.

On 18 October OKH ordered the 11th Army to transfer the battery as soon as possible to Leipzig, but the 11th Army asked to retain it to use in a new version of Georg to begin later that month. Georg was again postponed in late October, and later canceled. A new attack, code-named Feuerzauber (Fire Magic), was planned in which the battery was to participate, but it too was canceled after the Soviet encirclement of the German forces attacking Stalingrad. OKH finally recalled the battery on 4 December 1942 when it was clear that it had no mission.

OKH issued orders to create a Heavy Artillery Battalion (Karl) on 4 May 1943 using the vehicles and equipment of Heavy Artillery Battery 628. This became the first battery of the new battalion while the other battery was raised from scratch on 15 May as was the battalion headquarters. Each battery had two Karl-Geräte plus a fifth in reserve. 18th Army of Army Group North had plans to use one Karl-Gerät against the Oranienbaum Bridgehead west of Leningrad during the summer of 1943, but the battalion was ordered to return the Karl-Geräte to Leipzig on 8 August. Just like the 833rd the battalion was ordered to reform with eight 21 cm Mörser 18 howitzers on 29 August 1943 with effect by 10 September. A Unit for Karl-Geräte (Kommando für Karl-Geräte) was formed on that same date as caretakers for the weapons. This was redesignated Unit for Special-Equipment of Heavy Artillery Battalion (motorized) (Kommando für Sonder-Gerät des schwere Artillerie-Abteilung (mot.)) 628 on 2 June 1944.

On 13 August 1944 a battery was ordered to be created immediately with one 54 cm Karl-Gerät and sent to the 9th Army to help it suppress the Warsaw Uprising. The next day the Kommando für Sonder-Geräte formed the Army Artillery Battery (Static) 638 Heeres-Artillerie Batterie (bodenständige) with 60 cm Karl-Gerät Nr. VI "Ziu" since no 54 cm weapon was available and a firing table hadn't yet been computed. It arrived at the Warsaw West train station at 0700 on 17 August 1944, although the ammunition train didn't arrive until the following morning.

On 24 August OKH noted that it had been very successful in combat and ordered another Karl-Gerät sent to Warsaw. A second battery, numbered 428, was formed 2 days later by the Kommando für Sonder-Geräte, but it didn't arrive at the Warsaw West train station until 1257 on 7 September 1944. A third Karl-Gerät 040 was shipped to Warsaw on 10 September and incorporated into Battery 428. "Ziu" needed repairs and was shipped on 22 September back to Jüterbog. At some point a fourth Karl-Gerät was shipped to Warsaw as it was reported as operational on 25 September.

A meeting was held on 29 September by the OKH General der Artillerie to discuss the overall status of the Karl-Gerät, its supporting equipment and ammunition:

1. Karl-Geräte

Gerät Nr. I: Set up for both 040 and 041. Currently equipped with 040 with Battery 428.

Gerät Nr. II: Only set up as 040. Currently being overhauled in Jüterbog. Motor installation will be completed in about 14 days.

Gerät Nr. III: About 14 days ago the gun tube blew apart while test firing. Only about 50% is reusable. Hitler has decided that this Gerät is to be restored to full operating condition. However, the schedule for restoring it isn't known.

Gerät Nr. IV: Set up for both 040 and 041. Currently equipped as 040 with Battery 428.

Gerät Nr. V: Set up for both 040 and 041. Equipped as a 040, it will be sent to Battery 638 in Budapest.

Gerät Nr. VI: Only set up as 040. Came back from employment in Warsaw. Repairs will be completed in about 20 days.

Gerät Nr. VII: Versuchs-Gerät 041 Currently with the Waffenamt for test firing and obtaining firing table data. It is not currently operational because important components (engine) are being overhauled and won't be operational before April 1945.

2. Guns

Six 54 centimetres (21 in) 041 guns have been ordered. Three have been completed and are stored in Jüterbog. A decision on the other three is requested because delivery will take at least 14 months.

3. 35 ton Crane Karl-Geräte can only be employed when each battery has a 35 ton crane. Two are in service, one is in Jüterbog without its trailer, which was destroyed by fire.

4. Culemeyer-Strassenroller Each battery needs one complete set of these heavy transport trailers. The two sets in service are set up for 040. Three 16-wheel trailers set up for 040 are available. Another 24-wheel trailer must be acquired to employ any additional Mörser Karl.

5. Munitionsschlepper 13 total, of which 6 are with Batteries 428 and 638, 2 with the Weapon Department (Waffenamt) for 040, 2 converted to 041 and 2 available.

6. Ammunition a. Munition 040: 264 shells are immediately available, of which 150 are planned to be allotted to Battery 638. Another 96 will be completed in the next few days. 241 round are in Unterluss to change their high explosive filler. About 10 completed daily. Part of the cartridges must be reworked. Powder testing will occur on 5 October so that the rest of the ammunition can be refilled.

b. Munition 041: 50 concrete-piercing shells have been delivered to Hillersleben to be shot for firing table data in early October. 25 shells will still be delivered by the end of September, another 25 by the end of October, from then on 50 per month are planned. 50 high-explosive shells (Sprenggranaten) are to be completed for firing table data in November. In early 1945 a total of 60 HE and concrete-piercing shells are to be produced monthly.

Three days later Battery 638 was ordered to transfer to Budapest and was loaded without any Karl-Gerät. Nr. V was rerouted to Budapest to equip the battery. Battery 428 followed on 10–11 October 1944. Both batteries were ordered back to Warsaw on 19 October, although they didn't arrive until 28 October. On 6 November Battery 638 transferred one Karl-Gerät 040 to 428 and returned to Jüterbog on 10 November to rearm with a Geräte 041. Battery 428 didn't remain near Warsaw much longer and departed for Jüterbog itself on 15 November.

Battery 428 exchanged its guns for Nr. II and VI (both with Geräte 040) and departed for the West on 14 December 1944 to participate in Operation Watch on the Rhine (Unternehmen Wacht am Rhein), which would be known by Americans as the Battle of the Bulge, but didn't reach the front until 29 December. Battery 628 followed on 20 December after equipping with Nr. IV, the first 54 cm Gerät 041 to be committed to battle.

Little is known of their activities during the battle, but Gerät Nr. II was damaged enroute by a bomb and was back in Jüterbog on 6 January 1945. It was repaired using parts from Karl Nr. I by 3 February. Gerät Nr. IV was damaged by a number of penetrating hits and arrived in Jüterbog on 31 January. Gerät Nr. VI was still at the front on 19 January. In the meantime Nr. V was modified to use the 54 cm howitzer and had its engine rebuilt.

Battery 628 was initially ordered to the Vistula Front on 7 March, but this was countermanded on 11 March and the battery was sent west to the Remagen area. The German High Command (Oberkommando der Wehrmacht) war diary reported that 14 rounds were fired at the Remagen Bridgehead on 20 March 1945. Battery 428 was also ordered west on 11 March, but served in the 1st Army sector.

A status report dated 22 March showed Geräte Nr. I and IV were still at Jüterbog, with Nr. I configured as a 040 and Nr. IV to be completed as a 041. Geräte Nr. II and V had left for the front on 11 and 10 March respectively. Gerät Nr. VI was returning to Jüterbog with engine damage. Gerät Nr. III had been virtually destroyed and only the gun breech was salvageable. Gerät Nr. VII needed parts and wasn't going to be made operational anytime soon.

Battery 628 was ordered disbanded on 11 April and its personnel incorporated into Battery 428, although it's unlikely that either unit actually saw action except in local defense.

In 1945, Nr. II ("Eva") as well as Nr. V ("Loki") were captured by US forces in the period 21 March to 11 April 1945. Nr. VII, the test weapon, was captured by the US Army in Hillersleben and shipped to Aberdeen Proving Grounds but later scrapped. Nr. VI ("Ziu") was captured by the Red Army, probably when they overran Jüterbog on 20 April 1945. This is on display at Kubinka, although marked as Nr. I ("Adam"). Nr. IV ("Odin") was also captured by the Red Army. The fates of guns Nr. I ("Adam") and Nr. III ("Thor") are not known. It is probable both were captured by the Red Army as their last known location was in Jüterbog, less than a month earlier.

Tuesday, April 19, 2011

Swiss made MK series submachineguns by SIG

The MKMS submachine gun was developed by Schweizerishe Industrie-Gesellshaft (SIG) company in Neuhausen during early thirties, and first introduced in 1933. It was a military-type weapon in which designers sought to increase infantry firepower by using long barrels (about 2 times longer than in most contemporary submachine guns) and large capacity magazines. To achieve this goal designers had to use a delayed blowback action which kept the cartridge within the chamber long enough for bullet to leave long barrel. To make weapon more comfortable during transportation and non-combat movement, yet ready for action, designers also used for a first time a folding magazine housing, so the long magazine could be stored horizontally within the rifle-type stock below the barrel, and then brought into action simply py pressing the release button, which dropped magazine to vertical position. The resulting weapon was quite long, and thus SIG also produced a short-barreled police version, known as MKPS. Both MKMS and MKPS submachine guns were somewhat complicated and made to extremely high standards, so the price was high and sales were low. Thus, in 1935 SIG designers simplified both weapons by using simple blowback action with one-piece bolt. These guns were designated MKMO and MKPO respectively, but despite simplification, sales were still low so production was brought to an end in late thirties, with some 1,200 submachine guns of all four versions made in total. Few of those submachine guns were sold to certain Swiss police departments, as well as to Finland and Vatican state (used by Swiss guards in 9x19 caliber).

SIG MKMO submachinegun with magazine folded forward.

The SIG MKMS submachine gun used indigenous delayed blowback action with two-part bolt, designed by Gottard End. In this system, the bolt body was allowed to recoil for a very short distance after discharge, after which it was arrested by striking the rear edge of the ejection port in receiver. The rear part of the bolt was allowed to recoil freely under the inertia, providing necessary delay for bolt opening. After certain distance of recoil, the rear part of the bolt strike the bolt body, unlocking it from the receiver by tipping down its rear end through inclined surfaces machined to both parts. Once unlocked, the two-part bolt group is free to recoil and cycle the action. Upon closure of the bolt, the rear part of the bolt forces the front part to tip its rear end up and make it ready for locking after next discharge. Firing was from the open bolt, with fire mode (single shots or full automatic) being selected by the pull of the trigger (short pull for single shots, long pull for automatic fire). MKMO and MKPO submachine guns featured simple blowback action and also fired from open bolt Manual safety was located on the left side of receiver. Feed was from box magazines, which were inserted into folding magazine housing that has integral dust covers to protect the inner workings when magazine is folded forward for march. Stock of the gun is made from wood and represents the rifle or carbine, sights are adjustable and rather optimistically marked from 100 to 1000 meters.

 SIG MKMS submachine gun.

Patent diagram for delayed blowback action of SIG MKMS and MKPS submachine guns.

SIG MKPO submachinegun with magazine folded forward.

 SIG MKPS submachine gun.

Caliber 7.65x22Luger, 7.63x25Mauser, 9x19 Luger, 9x25 Mauser
Weight, empty 3.9 kg 3.6 kg
Length (stock closed/open) 1025 mm 820 mm
Barrel length 500 mm 300 mm
Rate offire 800-850 rounds per minute 900rounds per minute
Magazinecapacity 40 rounds 30 rounds
Effective range 300meters 200 meters

Monday, April 18, 2011

The Krupp K5 heavy railway gun

The Krupp K5 was a heavy railway gun used by Germany throughout World War II.

K5 railway gun in France circa. 1945.

The Krupp K5 series were consistent in mounting a 21.5 m long gun barrel in a fixed mounting with only vertical elevation of the weapon. This gondola was then mounted on a pair of 12-wheel bogies designed to be operated on commercial and military rails built to German standards. This mounting did not permit any degree of horizontal traverse, but instead the carriage had to be aligned on the rails first, with only minimal fine levelling capable once halted. Hence the gun could only fire at targets tangential to an existing railway track.

To track targets needing greater traverse either a curved length of railway was used with the gun shunted backwards or forwards to aim; a cross-track was laid with the front bogie turned perpendicular to the rest of the gun and moved up and down the cross-track to train the weapon; or for 360 degree traverse, the so-called "Vögele Turntable" could be constructed, consisting of a raised rail section (the "firing bed") carrying the gun, running on a circular track with a central jack to raise the gun during traverse and to take some of the enormous weight.

United States Army Ordnance Museum.

The main barrel of the K5 is 283 mm in calibre (caliber), and is rifled with twelve 7 mm grooves. These were originally 10 mm deep, but were shallowed to rectify cracking problems.

The K5 was the result of a crash program launched in the 1930s to develop a force of railway guns to support the Wehrmacht by 1939. K5 development began in 1934 with first testing following in 1936 at the Firing Test Range Rügenwalde-Bad (German: Schießplatz Rügenwalde-Bad) in Farther Pomerania at the South coast of the Baltic Sea. Initial tests were done with a 150 mm barrel under the designation K5M.

Battery Todt Museum, Audinghen, France.

Production led to eight guns being in service for the Invasion of France, although problems were encountered with barrel splitting and rectified with changes to the rifling. The guns were then reliable until the end of the war, under the designation K5 Tiefzug 7 mm. Three of them were installed on the English Channel coast to target British shipping in the Channel, and proved successful at this task.

Towards the end of the war, development was done to allow the K5 to fire rocket-assisted projectiles to increase range. Successful implementation was done for firing these from the K5Vz.

A final experiment was to bore out two of the weapons to 310 mm (12.2") smoothbore to allow firing of the Peenemünder Pfeilgeschosse arrow shells. The two modified weapons were designated K5 Glatt.

Several other proposals were made to modify or create new models of the K5 which never saw production. In particular, there were a number of plans for a model which could leave the railway by use of specially modified Tiger II tank chassis which would support the mounting box in much the same manner as the railway weapon's two bogies. This project was ended by the defeat of Germany.

A K5(E) is preserved at the United States Army Ordnance Museum in Maryland. It is composed of parts from two guns that shelled Anzio beachhead during World War II. They were named Robert and Leopold by the Germans, but are better known by their Allied nicknames - Anzio Annie and Anzio Express.

The guns were discovered on a railroad siding in the town of Civitavecchia, on 7 June 1944, shortly after the allies occupied Rome. Robert had been partially destroyed by the gun crew before they surrendered and Leopold was also damaged but not as badly. Both guns were shipped to the U.S. Aberdeen Proving Ground, (Aberdeen, Maryland) where they underwent tests. One complete K5 was made from the two damaged ones, and Leopold remains on display to this day.

A second surviving gun can be seen at the Battery Todt museum, near Audinghen in northern France.

Type Railway Gun
Place of origin Nazi Germany
Service history
Used by Wehrmacht
Wars World War II
Production history
Manufacturer Krupp
Number built 25
Weight 218 t
Length 30 m (98 ft) travel mode
32 m (105 ft) firing mode
Barrel length 76.1 calibres; 21.539 m (70.66 ft)

Shell 255 kg (562 lbs)
Caliber 283 mm (11.14 in)
Elevation +50°
Rate of fire 15 rounds per hour
Muzzle velocity 1,120 m/s (3,675 ft/s)
Maximum range 50 km (31 mi)

Wednesday, April 13, 2011

The Swiss made Brugger Thomet MP9 submachine gun

The Brugger Thomet MP9 submachine gun started its life in 1992 as the Steyr TMP. The famous Steyr-Mannlicher company developed it in Austria, but Austrian export licensing laws, lack of a sales and resulted in the decision of Steyr to drop the TMP from the product line in 2001. Then, another well-known company, Brugger Thomet AG of Switzerland, bought all the drawings, patents and rights for the TMP design, and set its team to fully develop the promising design which resulted in over nineteen engineering changes in the product. At the present time the MP9 (which stands for 'Machine Pistol 9 millimeter') is produced and marketed by the B+T. According to available information, B+T MP9 is already in use by some police units in Switzerland.

 The B+T MP 9 submachine gun, with shoulder stock folded.

MP9 is an interesting weapon,offering interim solution between true 'machine pistols' such as Beretta93R or Glock 18, and full-size submachine guns, like the Beretta 12S or H&KMP5. While the former weapons are very compact, they full-auto fire capability is severely limited by high recoil, short barrels and high rates of fire; on the other hand, full-size submachine guns often are too big, especially for close protection teams, police working in plain clothes and entry team when engaged in room-to-room searches and other such operations in confined spaces. Therefore, the MP9 falls directly in between, being in the same niche as Ingram MAC-10, H&K MP5K or IMI Mini-UZI. MP9 offers lower, and thus more controllable rate of fire (900 rounds/minute as opposed to 1100-1200 rounds/minute in automatic pistols like M93R or G18), MP9 also features bigger magazine capacities, integral front grip and shoulder stock, and,according to the last trends in tactical solutions, an integral Picatinny type rail which can accept a wide variety of sights and other accessories. Compared to full-size submachine guns, MP9 trades effective range for more compact size and lighter weight, and ability to be fired single-handed when the operator has his secondhand occupied such when holding a ballistic shield.

 The B+T MP 9 submachine gun (drawing), with shoulder stock folded.

The MP 9 is a short recoil operated, locked breech, selective fired weapon. The MP 9 features a rotating barrel locking, and the bolt is telescoped around the barrel for about half of its length. The entire bolt/barrel group is enclosed in lightweight polymer housing, which protects the mechanisms from elements and rough handling. The MP 9 is hammer fired, and MP 9 fires from closed bolt for greater accuracy. Trigger unit features a drop safety, as well as ambidextrous safety / fire selector in the form of the cross-bolt push-button, located in the grip behind the trigger. The cocking handle is located at the top rear of the receiver/housing, and does not reciprocate when gun is fired. The bolt stays open after the last shot from magazine is fired, facilitating for faster reloading. The muzzle end of the barrel is protected by muzzle cap, which is shaped to accept proprietary silencer, also manufactured by B+T. Side-folding buttstock is made from polymer,and easily goes out of way when not required. Standard sights are of ghost ring(diopter with large aperture) type, and are fully adjustable, with ability to mount red-dot or night sights onto integral Picatinny/MIL-STD rail. Since the receiver/housing of MP 9 is made from polymer, it could be available indifferent colors (such as basic black, military green or desert tan).

 The B+T MP 9 submachine gun (drawing), with shoulder stock opened.

The B+T MP 9 submachine gun, with red dot sight, tactical light, B+T silencer(suppressor) and spare magazines.

Caliber: 9x19mm Luger/Para
Weight: 1.4 kg less magazine
Length (stock closed/open): 523 / 303 mm
Barrel length: 130 mm
Rate of fire: 900 rounds per minute
Magazine capacity: 15, 20, 25 or 30 rounds
Effective range: 50 - 100 meters

Monday, April 11, 2011

The Junkers Ju 87 or Stuka two-seater ground-attack aircraft

The Junkers Ju 87 or Stuka (from Sturzkampfflugzeug, "dive bomber") was a two-seat (pilot and rear gunner) German ground-attack aircraft. Designed by Hermann Pohlmann, the Stuka first flew in 1935 and made its combat debut in 1936 as part of the Luftwaffe's Condor Legion during the Spanish Civil War.

The aircraft was easily recognizable by its inverted gull wings, fixed spatted undercarriage and its infamous Jericho-Trompete ("Jericho Trumpet") wailing siren, becoming the propaganda symbol of German air power and the Blitzkrieg victories of 1939–1942. The Stuka's design included several innovative features, including automatic pull-up dive brakes under both wings to ensure that the aircraft recovered from its attack dive even if the pilot blacked out from the high acceleration. Although sturdy, accurate, and very effective, the Ju 87 was vulnerable to modern fighter aircraft, like many other dive bombers of the war. Its flaws became apparent during the Battle of Britain; poor manoeuvrability, lack of speed and defensive armament meant that the Stuka required heavy fighter escort to operate effectively.

A Ju 87 B-2.

The Stuka operated with further success after the Battle of Britain, and its potency as a precision ground-attack aircraft became valuable to German forces in the Balkans Campaign, the African and Mediterranean Theaters and the early stages of the Eastern Front campaigns where Allied fighter resistance was disorganised and in short supply. Once the Luftwaffe had lost air superiority on all fronts, the Ju 87 once again became an easy target for enemy fighter aircraft. In spite of this, because there was no better replacement, the type continued to be produced until 1944. By the end of the conflict, the Stuka had been largely replaced by ground-attack versions of the Focke-Wulf Fw 190, but was still in use until the last days of the war. An estimated 6,500 Ju 87s of all versions were built between 1936 and August 1944.

Oberst Hans-Ulrich Rudel was the most notable Stuka ace and was the most highly decorated German serviceman of the Second World War. He was the only serviceman to receive the highest German military award, the Knight's Cross with golden Oak Leaves, Swords and Diamonds, on 29 December 1944.

Ernst Udet; the greatest proponent of the dive-bomber and the Ju 87.

The Ju 87's principal designer, Hermann Pohlmann, held the opinion that any dive-bomber design needed to be simple and robust. This led to many technical innovations, like the retractable undercarriage being discarded in favour of one of the Stuka's distinctive features, its fixed and "spatted" undercarriage. Pohlmann continued to carry on developing and adding to his ideas and those of Dipl Ing Karl Plauth (Plauth was killed in a flying accident in November 1927), and produced the Ju A 48 which underwent testing on 29 September 1928. The military version of the Ju A 48 was designated the Ju K 47.

The most notable feature of the Stuka was its inverted gull wings, as shown in this photograph. Also visible are the two separate sliding "hoods" of the canopy.

After the Nazis came to power, the design was given priority. Despite initial competition from the Henschel Hs 123, the Reichsluftfahrtministerium (RLM) - German for the "Aviation Ministry" - turned to the designs of Herman Pohlmann of Junkers and co-designer of the K 47, Karl Plauth. During the trials with the K 47 in 1932, the double vertical stabilizers were introduced to give the rear gunner a better field of fire. The main, and what was to be the most distinctive, feature of the Ju 87 was its double-spar inverted gull wings. After Plauth's death, Pohlmann continued the development of the Junkers dive bomber. The Ju A 48 registration D-ITOR, was originally fitted with a BMW 132 engine, producing some 450 kW (600 hp). The machine was also fitted with dive brakes for dive testing. The aircraft was given a good evaluation and "exhibited very good flying characteristics".

Ernst Udet took an immediate liking to the concept of dive-bombing after flying the Curtiss Hawk II. When he invited Walther Wever and Robert Ritter von Greim to watch Udet perform a trial flight in May 1934 at the Jüterbog artillery range, it caused doubt about the ability of the dive bomber. Udet began his dive at 1,000 m (3,800 ft) and released his 1 kg (2 lb) bombs at 100 m (330 ft), barely recovering and pulling out of the dive. The Chief of the Air Weapons Command Bureau, Walther Wever, and the Secretary of State for Aviation, Erhard Milch, feared that such high-level nerves and skill could not be expected of "average pilots" in the Luftwaffe. Nevertheless, development continued at Junkers. Udet's "growing love affair" with the dive-bomber pushed it to the forefront of German aviation development. Udet went so far as to encourage all medium bombers to have dive-bombing capabilities.

Junkers Ju 87 B during the Battle of Stalingrad.

The design of the Ju 87 had begun in 1933 as part of the Sturzbomber-Programm. The Ju 87 was to be powered by the British Rolls-Royce Kestrel engine. Ten engines were ordered by Junkers on 19 April 1934 for £ 20,514/2/6 (twenty thousand, five hundred and fourteen pounds, two shillings and sixpence). The first Ju 87 prototype was built by AB Flygindustri in Sweden and secretly brought to Germany in late 1934. It was to have been completed in April 1935 but, due to the inadequate strength of the airframe, construction was not completed until October 1935. However, the mostly complete Ju 87 V1 W.Nr.c 4921 (less non-essential parts) took off for its maiden flight on 17 September 1935. The aircraft originally did not carry any registration, but later was given the registration D-UBYR. The flight report, by Hauptmann Willy Neuenhofen, stated the only problem was with the small radiator, which caused the power plant to overheat.

The Ju 87 V1, powered by a Rolls-Royce Kestrel engine V12 cylinder liquid-cooled engine, and with a twin-tail, crashed on 24 January 1936, killing pilot Willy Neuenhofen. The square twin fins and rudders proved too weak and, during dive testing, they collapsed and the aircraft crashed. The accident happened after the aircraft entered an inverted spin during the testing of the terminal dynamic pressure in a dive. The crash prompted a change of tail design to a single vertical stabilizer. To withstand strong forces during the dive, heavy plating was fitted, along with brackets riveted to the frame and longeron, to the fuselage. Other early additions included the installation of hydraulic dive brakes that were fitted under the leading edge and could rotate 90°.

The powerplant; a Jumo 211D installed in a Ju 87 B.

The RLM was still not interested in the Ju 87 and was not impressed that it relied on a British engine. In late 1935 Junkers suggested fitting a DB 600 in-line engine, while the final variant would be equipped with the Jumo 210. This was accepted by the RLM as an interim solution. The reworking of the design began on 1 January 1936. The test flight could not be carried out for over two months due to a lack of adequate aircraft. The 24 January crash at Kleutsch near Dresden had already destroyed one machine and killed Junkers' chief test pilot Willy Neuenhofen and his engineer Heinrich Kreft.

The second prototype was also beset by design problems. It had its twin stabilizers removed and a single tail fin installed due to fears over stability. Due to a shortage of power plants, instead of a DB 600, a BMW "Hornet" engine was fitted. All these delays set back testing until 25 February 1936. By March 1936 the second prototype, the V2, was finally fitted with the Jumo 210Aa power plant, which a year later was replaced by a Jumo 210 G (W.Nr. 19310). Although the testing went well, and the pilot, Flight Captain Hesselbach, praised its performance, Wolfram von Richthofen told the Junkers representative and Construction Office chief engineer Ernst Zindel that the Ju 87 stood little chance of becoming the Luftwaffe's main dive bomber as it was underpowered in his opinion. On 9 June 1936 the RLM ordered cessation of development, in favour of the Heinkel He 118, a rival design. Apparently, the next day Ernst Udet cancelled the order, and development continued.

Kette of Ju 87 Ds in flight, October/November 1943.

On 27 July 1936, Udet crashed the He 118 prototype, He 118 V1 D-UKYM. That same day, Charles Lindbergh was visiting Ernst Heinkel, and as a result, Heinkel could only communicate with Udet by telephone. According to this version of the story, Heinkel warned Udet about the propeller's fragility. Udet failed to consider this, so in a dive, the engine oversped and the propeller broke away. Immediately after this incident, Udet announced the Stuka the winner of the development contest.

Ju 87 G-2 "Kanonenvogel" with its twin Bordkanone BK 3.7, 37mm underwing gun pods.

Despite being chosen instead of the rival He 118, the design was still lacking and drew frequent criticism from Wolfram von Richthofen. Testing of the V4 prototype (A Ju 87 A-0) in early 1937 revealed several problems. The Ju 87 could take off in just 250 m (820 ft) and climb to 1,875 m (6,000 ft) in just eight minutes with a 250 kg (550 lb) bomb load, and its cruising speed was 250 km/h (160 mph). However, Richthofen pushed for a more powerful engine. According to the test pilots the Heinkel He 50 had a better acceleration rate, and could climb away from the target area much more quickly, avoiding enemy ground and air defenses. Richthofen stated that any maximum speed below 350 km/h (217 mph) was unacceptable for those reasons. Pilots also complained that navigation and powerplant instruments were mixed together, and were not easy to read, especially in combat. Despite this, pilots praised the aircraft's handling qualities and strong airframe.

These problems were to be resolved by installing the Daimler-Benz DB 600 engine, but delays in development forced the installation of the Jumo 210 Da in-line engine. Flight testing began on 14 August 1936. Subsequent testing and progress fell short of Richthofen's hopes, although the machine's speed was increased to 280 km/h (173 mph) at ground level and 290 km/h (179 mph) at 1,250 m (4,000 ft), while maintaining its good handling ability.

A Ju 87D during wing installation.

The Ju 87 was a single-engined all-metal cantilever monoplane. It had a fixed undercarriage and could carry a crew of two. The main construction material was duralumin, and the external coverings were made of Duralumin sheeting. Parts that were required to be of strong construction, such as the wing flaps, were made of Pantal and its components made of Elektron. Bolts and parts that were required to take heavy stress were made of steel.

The Ju 87 was fitted with detachable hatches and removable coverings to aid and ease maintenance and overhaul. The designers avoided welding parts wherever possible, preferring moulded and cast parts instead. Large airframe segments were interchangeable as a complete unit, which increased speed of repair.

The airframe was also subdivided into sections to allow transport by road or rail. The wings were of standard Junkers double-wing construction. This gave the Ju 87 considerable advantage on take-off; even at a shallow angle large lift forces were created through the aerofoil, reducing take-off and landing runs.

In accordance with the Aircraft Certification Center for "Stress Group 5", the Ju 87 had reached the acceptable structural strength requirements for a dive bomber. It was able to withstand diving speeds of 600 km/h (373 mph) and a maximum level speed of 340 km/h (211 mph) near ground level, and a flying weight of 4,300 kg (9,480 lb). Performance in the diving attack was enhanced by the introduction of dive brakes under each wing, which allowed the Ju 87 to maintain a constant speed and allow the pilot to steady his aim. It also prevented the crew suffering extreme g forces and high acceleration during "pull-out" from the dive.

The fuselage had an oval cross-section and housed a water-cooled inverted-V inline engine. The cockpit was protected from the engine by a firewall ahead of the wing center section where the fuel tanks were located. At the rear of the cockpit the bulkhead was covered by a canvas cover which could be breached by the crew in an emergency, enabling them to escape into the main fuselage. The canopy was split into two sections and joined by a strong welded steel frame. The canopy itself was made of Plexiglas and each compartment had its own "sliding hood" for the two crew members.

Two Junkers Ju 87 Ds near completion.

The engine was mounted on two main support frames that were supported by two tubular struts. The frame structure was triangulated and emanated from the fuselage. The main frames were bolted onto the power plant in its top quarter. In turn the frames were attached to the firewall by universal joints. The firewall itself was constructed from asbestos mesh with dural sheets on both sides. All conduits passing through had to be arranged so that no harmful gases could penetrate the cockpit.

The fuel system comprised two fuel tanks in the center section of the port and starboard wings, each with 250 L capacity. The tanks also had a predetermined limit which, if passed, would warn the pilot via a red warning light in the cockpit. The fuel was injected via a pump from the tanks to the power plant. Should this shut down, it could be pumped manually using a hand-pump on the fuel cock armature.

The powerplant was cooled by a 10 L (3 US gal) ring-shaped aluminium water container that was situated between the propeller and engine. A further container of 20 L (5 US gal) was positioned under the engine. The control surfaces operated in much the same way as other aircraft, with the exception of the innovative automatic pull-out system. Releasing the bomb activated the pull-out system. It initiated the pull-out, or automatic recovery and climb, upon the deflection of the dive brakes. The pilot could override the system by exerting significant force on the control column and taking manual control.

The wing was the most unusual feature. It consisted of a single center section and two outer sections installed using four universal joints. The center section had a large negative dihedral (anhedral) and the outer surfaces a positive dihedral. This created the gull, or "cranked", wing pattern along the Ju 87's leading edge. The shape of the wing improved pilot-to-ground visibility and also allowed a shorter undercarriage height. The center section protruded only by 3 m (9 ft 10⅛ in) on either side.

The offensive armament was two 7.92 mm (.312 in) MG 17 machine guns fitted in each wing, operated by a mechanical pneumatics system from the pilot's control column. The rear gunner/radio operator operated one 7.92 mm (.312 in) MG 15 machine gun for defensive purposes.

The engine and propeller had automatic controls, and an auto-trimmer made the aircraft tail-heavy as the pilot rolled over into his dive, lining up red lines at 60°, 75° or 80° on the cockpit side window with the horizon and aiming at the target with the sight of the fixed gun. The heavy bomb was swung down clear of the propeller on crutches prior to release.

Ju 87 Bs over Poland, September/October 1939.

Flying at 4,600 m (15,000 ft), the pilot located his target through a bombsight window in the cockpit floor. The pilot moved the dive lever to the rear, limiting the "throw" of the control column. The dive brakes were activated automatically, the pilot set the trim tabs, retarded his throttle and closed the coolant flaps. The aircraft then rolled 180°, automatically nosing the aircraft into a dive. Red tabs protruded from the upper surfaces of the wing as a visual indicator to the pilot that, in case of a g-induced black-out, the automatic dive recovery system would be activated. The Stuka dived at a 60-90° angle, holding a constant speed of 500–600 km/h (350-370 mph) due to dive-brake deployment, which increased the accuracy of the Ju 87's aim.

When the aircraft was reasonably close to the target, a light on the contact altimeter came on to indicate the bomb-release point, usually at a minimum height of 450 m (1,500 ft). The pilot released the bomb and initiated the automatic pull-out mechanism by depressing a knob on the control column. An elongated U-shaped crutch located under the fuselage swung the bomb out of the way of the propeller, and the aircraft automatically began a 6 g pullout. Once the nose was above the horizon, dive brakes were retracted, the throttle was opened, and the propeller was set to climb. The pilot regained control and resumed normal flight. The coolant flaps had to be reopened quickly to prevent overheating.

Physical stress on the crew was severe. Human beings suffering more than 5 g forces in a seated position will suffer vision impairment in the form of a grey veil known to the Stuka pilots as "seeing stars". They lose vision while remaining conscious; after five seconds they black out. The Ju 87 pilot experienced the visual impairments most during "pull-up" from a dive.

Eric "Winkle" Brown, a British test pilot from the Royal Navy, and General Officer Commanding "Captured Enemy Aircraft Flight" section, tested the Ju 87 at RAE Farnborough. "I had a high opinion of the Stuka because I had flown a lot of dive-bombers and it’s the only one that you can dive truly vertically. Sometimes with the dive-bombers, pilots claim that they did a vertical dive. What a load of rubbish. The maximum dive is usually in the order of 60 degrees. In a dive when flying the Stuka, because it’s all automatic, you are really flying vertically. You feel that you are over the top and feel you are going that a way! The Vengeance and Dauntless were both very good but could dive no more than 60 or 70 degrees. The Stuka was in a class of its own."

Erhard Milch addressing a Ju 87 staffel on a Norwegian airfield.

Extensive tests were carried out by the Junkers works at their Dessau plant. It was discovered that the highest load a pilot could endure was 8.5 g for three seconds, when the aircraft was pushed to its limit by the centrifugal forces. At less than 4 g no visual problems or loss of consciousness were experienced. Above 6 g, 50% of pilots suffered visual problems, or "grey" out. With 40%, vision vanished altogether from 7.5 g onwards and black-out sometimes occurred. Despite this blindness the pilot could maintain consciousness and was capable of "bodily reactions". However, after more than three seconds half the subjects passed out. The pilot would regain consciousness two or three seconds after the centrifugal forces had dropped below 3 g and had lasted no longer than three seconds. In a crouched position, pilots could withstand 7.5 g and were able to remain functional for a short duration. In this position, Junkers concluded that ⅔ of pilots could withstand 8 g and perhaps 9 g for three to five seconds without vision defects which, under war conditions, was acceptable. During tests with the Ju 87 A-2 new technologies were tried out to reduce the effects of g forces. The pressurised cabin was of great importance during this research. Testing revealed that at high altitude even 2 g could cause the death of a crew in an unpressurised cabin and without appropriate clothing. This new technology, along with special clothing and oxygen masks, was researched and tested. When the United States Army occupied the Junkers factory at Dessau on 21 April 1945 they were impressed and interested in the medical flight tests with the Ju 87.

The concept of dive bombing became so popular among the leadership of the Luftwaffe that it became almost obligatory in new aircraft designs. Later bomber models like the Junkers Ju 88 the Dornier Do 217 for dive bombing. The Heinkel He 177 strategic bomber was initially supposed to have dive bombing capabilities, a requirement that contributed to the failure of the design.

Once the Stuka became too vulnerable to fighter opposition on all fronts, work was done to develop a replacement. None of the dedicated close-support designs on the drawing board progressed far due to the impact of the war and technological difficulties. So the Luftwaffe settled on the Focke-Wulf Fw 190 fighter aircraft, with the Fw 190F becoming the ground-attack version. The Fw 190F started to replace the Ju 87 for day missions in 1943, but the Ju 87 continued to be used as a night nuisance-raider until the end of the war.

A Ju 87 B in the North African theatre, c. 1941-42.

The second prototype had a redesigned single vertical stabiliser and a 610 PS (449 kW, 602 hp) Junkers Jumo 210 A engine installed, and later the Jumo 210 Da. The first A series variant, the A-0, was of all-metal construction, with an enclosed cockpit. To ease the difficulty of mass production the leading edge of the wing was straightened out and the ailerons' two aerofoil sections had smooth leading and trailing edges. The pilot could adjust the elevator and rudder trim tabs in flight, and the tail was connected to the landing flaps, which were positioned in two parts between the ailerons and fuselage. The A-0 also had a flatter engine cowling, which gave the pilot a much better field of vision. In order for the engine cowling to be flattened, the engine was set down nearly .25 m (10 in). The fuselage was also lowered along with the gunner's position, allowing the gunner a better field of fire.

The RLM ordered seven A-0s initially, but then increased the order to 11. Early in 1937 the A-0 was tested with varied bomb loads. The underpowered Jumo 210 A, as pointed out by von Richthofen, was insufficient, and was quickly replaced with the Jumo 210 D power plant.

The A-1s differed from the A-0s only slightly. As well as the installation of the Jumo 210 D, the A-1 had two 220 L (60 US gal) fuel tanks built into the inner wing, but it was not armoured or protected. The A-1 was also intended to be fitted with two 7.92 mm (.312 in) MG 17 machine guns in each wing, but this was dropped due to excessive weight. The two that remained were fed a total of 500 rounds of ammunition, stored in the undercarriage "spats". The pilot relied on the Revi C 21C gun sight for the two MG 17s. The gunner had only a single 7.92 mm (.312 ) MG 15, with 14 drums of ammunition each containing 75 rounds. This represented a 150-round increase in this position over the Ju 87 A-0. The A-1 was also fitted with a larger 3.3 m (10.8 ft) propeller.

The Ju 87 was capable of carrying a 500 kg (1,100 lb) bomb, but only if not carrying the rear gunner/radio operator as, even with the Jumo 210 D power plant, the Ju 87 was still underpowered for operations with more than a 250 kg (550 lb) bomb load. All Ju 87 As were restricted to 250 kg (550 lb) weapons (although during the Spanish Civil War missions were conducted without the gunner).

The Ju 87 A-2 was retrofitted with the Jumo 210Da fitted with a two-stage supercharger. The only further significant difference between the A-1 and A-1 was the H-PA-III controllable-pitch propeller. By mid-1938, 262 Ju 87 As had been produced, 192 from the Junkers factory at Dessau, and a further 70 from Bremen. The new, more powerful, Ju 87 B model started to replace the Ju 87 A at this time.


* Ju 87 V1 : W.Nr 4921 Flown on 17 September 1935
* Ju 87 V2 : W.Nr 4922, registration D-IDQR. Flown on 25 February 1936. Flown again as registration D-UHUH on 4 June 1937
* Ju 87 V3 : W.Nr 4923 Flown on 27 March 1936
* Ju 87 V4 : W.Nr 4924 Flown on 20 June 1936
* Ju 87 V5 : W.Nr 4925 Flown on 14 August 1936

Production variants

* Ju 87 A-0 : Ten pre-production aircraft, powered by a 640 PS (471 kW, 631 hp) Jumo 210C engine.
* Ju 87 A-1 : Initial production version.
* Ju 87 A-2 : Production version fitted with an improved 680 PS (500 kW, 671 hp) Jumo 210E engine.

The Ju 87 B series was to be the first mass produced variant. The first variant, the Ju 87 B-0, was produced in small numbers. A total of six Ju 87 B-0s were produced, built from Ju 87 A airframes. Test flights began from the summer of 1937. A small number, at least three, served as conversion Cs or Es for potential naval variants. Most of the prototypes were conversions from the Ju 87 A-1.

The next major variant was the Ju 87 B-1 with a considerably larger engine, its Junkers Jumo 211D generating 1,200 PS (883 kW, 1,184 hp), and the fuselage and landing gear were completely redesigned. This new design was again tested in Spain, and after proving its abilities there, production was ramped up to 60 per month. As a result, by the outbreak of World War II the Luftwaffe had 336 Ju 87 B-1s on hand. The B-1 was also fitted with "Jericho trumpets", essentially propeller-driven sirens with a diameter of 0.7 m (2.3 ft) mounted on the wing's leading edge directly forward of the landing gear, or on the front edge of the fixed main gear fairing. This was used to damage enemy morale and enhance the intimidating effect of dive-bombing. After the enemy became used to it, they were to be withdrawn. The devices also caused a loss of some 20–25 km/h (10-20 mph) through drag. Instead some bombs were fitted with whistles installed on the fin of the bomb to produce the noise after release.

The trumpets were a suggestion from Generaloberst Ernst Udet (but some authors say they were an idea from Adolf Hitler himself). The Ju 87 B-2s that followed had some improvements and were built in a number of variants that included ski-equipped versions (the B-1 also had this modification), and at the other end, with a tropical operation kit called the Ju 87 B-2 trop. Italy's Regia Aeronautica received a number of the B-2s and named them the Picchiatello, while others went to the other members of the Axis, including Hungary, Bulgaria and Romania. The B-2 also had an oil hydraulic system for closing the cowling flaps. This continued in all the later designs.

Production of the Ju 87 B started in 1937. 89 B-1s were to be built at Junkers' factory in Dessau and another 40 at the Weserflug plant in Bremen by July 1937. Production would be carried out by the Weserflug company after April 1938. But another 352 Ju 87 B-1s were built at Junkers up until March 1940. From August 1938 to March 1940 the Weserflug company produced 740 Ju 87s. In total an estimated 700 Ju 87 B-1s and 230 B-2s were delivered to the Luftwaffe of which 550 were built at Junkers. The remaining machines were built at Weserflug's Bremen factory.

A long range version of the Ju 87 B was also built, known as the Ju 87 R. They were primarily intended for anti-shipping missions. Internal fuel capacity was increased by adding two inner-wing 240 L (60 US gal) fuel tanks and by using two standardised Luftwaffe 300 L (80 US gal) capacity under-wing drop tanks. This increased capacity to 1,080 litres. Bomb carrying ability was reduced to a single 250 kg (550 lb) bomb if the aircraft was fully loaded with fuel.

The naval variant of the Ju 87 B was known as the Ju 87 C, and these were built to operate from the aircraft carrier Graf Zeppelin. The carrier was never completed, and all of these were converted back to the Ju 87 B standard. The Ju 87 R-1 had a B-1 airframe with the exception of a modification in the fuselage which enabled an additional oil tank. This was installed to feed the engine due to the increase in range after the addition of the extra fuel tanks.

The Ju 87 R-2 had the same airframe as the B-2, and strengthened to ensure it could withstand dives of 600 km/h (370 mph). The Jumo 211D in-line engine was installed, replacing the R-1s Jumo 211A. Due to an increase in overall weight by some 700 kg (1,540 lb), the Ju 87 R-2 was 30 km/h (20 mph) slower than the Ju 87 B-1 and had a lower service ceiling. The Ju 87 R-2 had an increased range advantage of 360 km (220 mi). The R-3 and R-4 were the last R variants developed. Only a few were built. The R-3 was an experimental tug for gliders and was installed with an expanded radio system which was installed so that the crew could communicate with the glider crew by way of the tow rope. The R-4 differed from the R-2 in the Jumo 211J powerplant. Like the R-3, it was produced only in limited numbers.

The Weserflug works at Bremen built 471 Ju 87 R-2s and 145 Ju 87 R-4s. 143 of the 145 built Ju 87 R-4s were delivered as two were destroyed on test flights. The tropicalised versions were initially named the Ju 87 B-2/U1. This was eventually designated the Ju 87 B-2 trop, equipped with tropical emergency equipment and sand filters for the powerplant.

Known prototypes

* Ju 87 V6 : W.Nr 0870027 Flown on 14 June 1937 (A-0 to B-0 conversion)
* Ju 87 V7 : W.Nr 0870028 Prototype of the Ju 87B, powered by a 1,000 PS (735 kW, 986 hp) Jumo 211A. Flown on 23 August 1937 (A-0 to B-0 conversion)
* Ju 87 V8 : W.Nr 4926 Flown on 11 November 1937
* Ju 87 V9 : W.Nr 4927 Flown on 16 February 1938 as D-IELZ. Flown again as WL-IELZ on 16 October 1939
* Ju 87 V15: W.Nr 0870321. Registration D-IGDK. Destroyed in a crash in 1942.
* Ju 87 V16: W.Nr 0870279. Registration GT+AX.
* Ju 87 V17 and Ju 87 V18 may never have been built.

On 18 August 1937 the RLM decided to introduce the Ju 87 Tr(C). The Ju 87 C was intended to be a dive and torpedo bomber for the Kriegsmarine. The type was ordered into prototype production and available for testing in January 1938. Testing was given just two months and was to begin in February and end in April 1938. The prototype V10 was to be a fixed wing test aircraft, while the following V11 would be modified with folding wings. The prototypes were Ju 87 B-0 airframes equipped with Jumo 211 A aero engines. Owing to delays the V10 was not completed until March 1938. It first flew on 17 March and was designated Ju 87 C-1. On 12 May the V11 also flew for the first time. By 15 December 1939 915 arrested landings on dry land had been made. It was found the arresting gear winch was too weak and had to be replaced. Tests showed the average braking distance was 20–35 metres. The Ju 87 V11 was designated C-0 on 8 October 1938. It was fitted out with standard Ju 87 C-0 equipment and better wing-folding mechanisms. The "carrier Stuka" was to be built at the Weserflug Company's Bremen plant between April and July 1940. Between July 1940 and August 1941 120 Ju 87 C-1s were built.

Among the "special" equipment of the Ju 87 C was a two seat rubber dinghy with signal ammunition and emergency ammunition. A quick fuel dump mechanism and two inflatable 750 L (200 US gal) bags in each wing and a further two 500 L (130 US gal) bags in the fuselage enabled the Ju 87 C to remain floating for up to three days in calm seas. On 6 October 1939, with the war already underway, 120 of the planned Ju 87 Tr(C)s on order at that point were cancelled. Despite the cancellation the tests continued using catapults. The Ju 87 C had a takeoff weight of 5,300 kg (11,700 lb) and a speed of 133 km/h (82 mph) on departure. The Ju 87 could be launched with a SC 500 kg (1,100 lb) bomb and four SC 50 kg (110 lb) bombs under the fuselage. The C-1 was to have two MG 17s mounted in the wing with a MG 15 operated by the rear gunner for defensive purposes. On 18 May 1940, production of the C-1 was switched to the R-1. The fleet of Ju 87 Cs that existed were lost throughout the war.

Known prototypes

* Ju 87 V10: Registration D-IHFH (changed to Stammkennzeichen of TK+HD). W.Nr 4928. First flown 17 March 1938
* Ju 87 V11: Registration TV+OV. W.Nr 4929. First flown 12 May 1938

The Eastern Front brought new challenges. A Ju 87 B-2 is fitted with ski undercarriage to cope with the winter weather, 22 December 1941.

Despite the Stuka's vulnerability to enemy fighters having been exposed during the Battle of Britain, the Luftwaffe had no choice but to continue its development as there was no replacement aircraft in sight. The result was the D-series. In June 1941 the RLM ordered five prototypes, the Ju 87 V21–25. A Daimler-Benz DB 603 powerplant was to be installed in the Ju 87 D-1, but it did not have the power of the Jumo 211 and performed "poorly" during tests and was dropped. The Ju 87 D-series had better streamlined oil- and water-coolers, and an aerodynamically refined cockpit with better visibility and space. In addition, armor protection was increased and a new dual-barrel 7.92 mm (.312 in) MG 81Z machine gun with an extremely high rate of fire was installed in the rear defensive position. The engine power was increased again, the Jumo 211 J-1 or Jumo 211P now delivering 1,420 PS (1,044 kW, 1,401 hp).

The fuel capacity of the Ju 87 D was also increased to 1,370 L (360 US gal). Tests at Rechlin revealed it made possible a flight duration of 2 hours and 15 minutes. With an extra two 300 L (80 US gal) fuel tanks it could reach four hours flight time. Production of the D-1 variant started in 1941 with 495 orders made. These aircraft were delivered between May 1941 and March 1942. The RLM wanted 832 machines produced from February 1941. The Weserflug company was tasked with their production. From June to September 1941, 40 Ju 87 Ds were expected to be built, increasing to 90 thereafter. Various production problems were encountered. Just one of the planned 48 was produced in July. Of the 25 the RLM hoped for in August 1941, none were delivered. Only in September 1941 did the first two of the planned 102 Ju 87s roll off the production lines. The shortfalls continued to the end of 1941. During this time the WFG plant in Bremen moved production to Berlin. Over 165 Ju 87s had not been delivered and production was only 23 Ju 87 Ds per month out of the 40 expected. By the Spring of 1942 to the end of production in 1944, 3,300 Ju 87s, mostly D-1s, D-2s and D-5s had been manufactured. The D-series saw extensive use in the Eastern Front and the Middle East. Bomb carrying ability was massively increased from 500 kg (1,100 lb) in the B-version to 1,800 kg (3,970 lb) in the D-version (max load for short ranges, overload condition), a typical bomb load ranged from 500-1,200 kg (1,100-2,650 lb).

The D-2 was a variant used as a glider tug by converting older D-series airframes. It was intended as the tropical version of the D-1. It was to have heavier armour to protect the crew from ground fire. The armour reduced its performance and caused the Oberkommando der Luftwaffe to "place no particular value on the production of the D-2". The D-3 was an improved D-1 with more armour for its ground-attack role. The D-3 was converted from D-2 status and equipped with the Jumo 211 J. A number of Ju 87 Ds were designated D-3Ns or D-3/ trops and fitted with night and tropical equipment. The D-4 designation applied to a prototype torpedo-bomber version which could carry a 750–905 kg (1,650-2,000 lb) aerial torpedo carried on a PVC 1006 B racks. The D-4 was to be converted from D-3 airframes and operated from the aircraft carrier Graf Zeppelin. Other modifications included a flame eliminator and, unlike earlier D variants, fitted with two 20 mm MG 151/20 cannon while the radio operator/rear gunner's ammunition supply was increased by 1,000 to 2,000 rounds.

The Ju 87 D-5 was based on the D-3 design and was unique in the Ju 87 series as it had wings 0.6 metres longer than previous variants. The powerplant was upgraded to the Jumo 211 P in-line engine with supercharger intercoolers. In August 1943, this was replaced with the Jumo 211 J-1. This engine increased rate of climb by 15 m/s (2,953 ft/min). With introduction of the Jumo 213 and increased power and climb rate, the lengthened wings were no longer needed. The window in the floor of the cockpit was reinforced and four, rather than the previous three, aileron hinges were installed. Higher diving speeds were obtained of 650 km/h (408 mph) up to 2,000 m (6,400 ft). Range was recorded as 715 km (443 mi) at ground level and 835 km (517 mi) at 5,000 m (16,400 ft).

Fuel capacity was in the form of one main 480 L (127 US gal) fuselage tank and two wing tanks of 150 L (40 US gal) capacity. Two 300 L (80 US gal) drop tanks could also be installed under the wings. The D-5 was also fitted with a 20 mm MG 151/20 cannon in each wing. Both magazines had a capacity of 180 rounds. The radio operator/gunner operated 7.92 mm (.312 in) MG 81Z. Ammunition loads usually ranged from 1,400 to 2,000 rounds. The D-6, according to "Operating instructions, works document 2097", was built in limited numbers to train pilots on "rationalised versions". However due to shortages in raw materials it did not go into mass production. The D-7 was another ground attack aircraft based on D-1 airframes upgraded to D-5 standard (armor, wing cannons, extended wing panels), while the D-8 was similar to the D-7 but based on D-3 airframes. The D-7 and D-8 were both were fitted with flame dampers, and could conduct night operations.

The Ju 87 E and F proposals were never built, and Junkers went straight onto the next variant. Another variant derived from the Ju 87 D airframe was called the Ju 87 H, and saw service as a dual-control trainer.

In January 1943 a variety of Ju 87 Ds became "test beds" for the Ju 87 G variants. At the start of 1943 the Luftwaffe test centre at Tarnewitz tested this combination from a static position. Oberst G. Wolfgang Vorwald noted the experiments were not successful, and suggested the cannon be installed on the Messerschmitt Me 410. However, testing continued, and on 31 January 1943 Ju 87 D-1 W.Nr 2552 was tested by a Hauptmann Hans-Karl Stepp near the Briansk training area. Stepp noted the increase in drag, which reduced the aircraft's speed to 259 km/h (162 mph). Stepp also noted that the aircraft was also less agile than the existing D variants. D-1 and D-3 variants operated in combat with the 37 mm (1.46 in) BK 37 cannon in 1943.

Known prototypes

* Ju 87 V 21. Registration D-INRF. W.Nr 0870536. Airframe conversion from B-1 to D-1. First flown on 1 March 1941.
* Ju 87 V 22 Registration SF+TY. W.Nr 0870540. Also airframe conversion from B-1 to D-1. First flown on 1 March 1941.
* Ju 87 V 23 Registration PB+UB. W.Nr 0870542. Also airframe conversion from B-1 to D-1. First flown on 1 March 1941.
* Ju 87 V 24 Registration BK+EE. W.Nr 0870544. Also airframe conversion from B-1 to D-1/D-4. First flown on 1 March 1941.
* Ju 87 V 25 Registration BK+EF. W.Nr 0870530. Also airframe conversion from B-1 to D-4 trop. First flown on 1 March 1941.
* Ju 87 V 30 is the only known prototype of the Ju 87 D-5. W.Nr 2296. First flown on 20 June 1943.
* Ju 87 V 26-28, Ju 87 V 31, and V 42-47 were experiments of unknown variants.

With the G variant, the aging airframe of the Ju 87 found new life as an anti-tank aircraft. This was the final operational version of the Stuka, and was deployed on the Eastern Front. The reverse in German military fortunes after 1943 and the appearance of huge numbers of well-armoured Soviet tanks caused Junkers to adapt the existing design to combat this new threat. The Hs 129 B had proved a potent ground attack weapon, but its large fuel tanks made it vulnerable to enemy fire, prompting the RLM to say "that in the shortest possible time a replacement of the Hs 129 type must take place." With Soviet tanks the priority targets, the development of a further variant as a successor to the Ju 87 D began in November 1942. On 3 November, Erhard Milch raised the question of replacing the Ju 87, or redesigning it altogether. It was decided to keep the design as it was, but to upgrade the powerplant to a Jumo 211J, and add two 30 mm (1.18 in) cannon. The variant was also designed to carry a 1,000 kg (2,200 lb) free-fall bomb load. Furthermore, the armoured protection of the Ilyushin Il-2 Sturmovik was copied, to protect the crew from ground fire now that the Ju 87 would be required to conduct low level attacks.

Hans-Ulrich Rudel, a Stuka ace, had suggested using two 37 mm (1.46 in) Flak 18 guns, each one in a self-contained under-wing gun pod, as the Bordkanone BK 3.7, after achieving success against Soviet tanks with the 20 mm MG 151/20 cannon. These gun pods were fitted to a Ju 87 D-1, W.Nr 2552 as "Gustav the tank killer". The first flight of the machine took place on 31 January 1943, piloted by Hauptmann Hans-Karl Stepp. The continuing problems with about two dozens of the Ju 88P-1, and slow development of the Hs 129B-3, each of them equipped with a large BK 7.5 cm (2.95 in) cannon in a conformal gun pod beneath the fuselage, meant the Ju 87 G was put into production. In April 1943 the first production Ju 87 G-1s were delivered to front line units. The two 37 mm (1.46 in) cannons were mounted in under-wing gun pods, each loaded with a 6-round magazine of armour-piercing Tungsten carbide ammunition. With these weapons the Kanonenvogel ("cannon-bird"), as it was nicknamed, proved spectacularly successful in the hands of Luftwaffe Stuka aces such as Rudel. The G-1 was converted from older D-series airframes retaining the smaller wing but without the dive brakes. The G-2 was similar to the G-1 except for use of the extended wing of the D-5. 208 G-2s were built and at least a further 22 more converted from D-3 airframes.

During the Battle of Kursk, only a handful of production Gs were committed. On the opening day of the offensive, Hans-Ulrich Rudel flew the only "official" Ju 87 G, although a significant number of Ju 87 D variants were fitted with the 37 mm (1.46 in) cannon, and operated as unofficial Ju 87 Gs before the battle. In June 1943, the RLM ordered 20 Ju 87 Gs as production variants. The G-1 influenced the design of the 1970s U.S. A-10 with Hans Rudel's book, Stuka Pilot being required reading for all members of the A-X project.

The Soviet Air Force practice of harassing German ground forces using antiquated Polikarpov Po-2 and R-5 biplanes at night to drop flares and fragmentation bombs, inspired the Luftwaffe to form its own Störkampfstaffeln (Harassment squadrons). On 23 July 1942, Junkers offered the Ju 87 B-2, R-2 and R-4s with Flammenvernichter ("flame eliminators"). On 10 November 1943, the RLM GL/C-E2 Division finally authorised the design in directive No. 1117. This new equipment made the Ju 87 more difficult to detect from the ground in darkness.

Pilots were also asked to complete the new "Blind Flying Certificate 3", which was especially introduced for this new type of operation. Pilots were trained at night, over unfamiliar terrain, and forced to rely on their instruments for direction. The Ju 87's standard Revi C12D gunsight was replaced with the new Nachtrevi ("Nightrevi") C12N. On some Ju 87s, the Revi 16D was exchanged for the Nachtrevi 16D. To ease the pilot's ability to see his instrument panel, a violet light was installed. On 15 November 1942, the Auxiliary Staffel were created. By mid-1943, Luftflotte 1 was given four Staffeln while Luftflotte 4 and Luftwaffe Kommando Ost (Luftwaffe Command East) were given six and two respectively. In the first half of 1943, 12 Nachtschlachtgruppen had been formed, flying a multitude of different types of aircraft, including the Ju 87, which proved itself ideally suited to the low-level slow flying needed.

Ju 87 D preparing for another mission against Soviet positions, winter 1942-43.

Despite teething problems with the Ju 87, the RLM ordered 216 Ju 87 A-1s into production and wanted to receive delivery of all machines between January 1936 and 1938. The Junkers production capacity was fully occupied and licensing to other production facilities became necessary. The first 35 Ju 87 A-1s were therefore produced by the Weserflug Aircraft Company Limited (WFG). By the 1 September 1939, 360 Ju 87 As and Bs had been built by the Junkers factories at Dessau and Weserflug factory in Bremen. By 30 September 1939, Junkers had received 2,365,196 Reichsmark (RM) for Ju 87 construction orders. For development orders the RLM paid another 243,646 RM. According to the Audit records in Berlin, by the end of the financial year on 30 September 1941, 3,059,000 RM had been spent on Ju 87 airframes. By 30 June 1940 697 Ju 87 B-1s and 129 B-2s alone had been produced. Another 105 R-1s and seven R-2s had been built.

The range of the B-2 was not sufficient and it was dropped in favour of the Ju 87 R long-range versions in the second half of 1940. The 105 R-1s were converted to R-2 status and a further 616 production R-2s were ordered. In May 1941 the development of the D-1 was planned. It was ordered into production by March 1942. However the expansion of the Junkers Ju 88 production lines to compensate for the withdrawal of Dornier Do 17 production meant this did not take place. The Weserflug plant in Bremen experienced production shortfalls. This prompted Erhard Milch to visit and threaten the company into meeting the RLM's Ju 87 D-1 requirements on 23 February 1942. To meet these demands, 700 skilled workers were needed. Skilled workers had been called up for military service in the Wehrmacht. Junkers were able to supply 300 German workers to the Weserflug factory, and as an interim, Soviet prisoners of war and Soviet civilians deported to Germany. Working around the clock the shortfall was made good. WFG received an official commendation. By May 1942 demand increased further. Chief of Procurement General Walter Herthel found that each unit needed 100 Ju 87s as standard strength and an average of 20 per month to cover attrition. Not until June–December 1942 did production capacity increase and 80 Ju 87s were produced per month.

By 17 August 1942, production had climbed rapidly after the Blohm & Voss BV 138 production was scaled down and licence work had shut down at WFG. Production now reached some 150 Ju 87 D airframes per month. But spare parts were failing to reach the same production levels. Undercarriage parts were particularly in short supply. Milch ordered production to 350 Ju 87s per month in September 1942. This was not achievable due to the insufficient production capacity in the Reich.

The RLM considered setting up production facilities to Slovakia. But this would delay production until the buildings and factories could be furnished with the machine tools. These tools were also in short supply, and the RLM hoped to purchase them from Switzerland and Italy. The Slovaks could provide 3,500–4,000 workers but no technical personnel. The move would only produce another 25 machines per month at a time when demand was increasing. In October, production plans were dealt another blow when one of WFGs plants burned down leaving a chronic shortage of tailwheels and undercarriage parts. Junkers Director and a member of the Luftwaffe industry council Carl Frytag reported that by January 1943 only 120 Ju 87s could be produced at Bremen and 230 at Berlin-Tempelhof.

After evaluating Ju 87 operations on the Eastern Front Hermann Göring ordered production limited to 200 per month in total. General der Schlachtflieger (General of Close-Support Aviation) Ernst Kupfer decided continued development would "hardly bring any further tactical value". Adolf Galland, a fighter pilot with operational and combat experience in strike aircraft, said to abandon development would be premature, but 150 machines per month would be sufficient.

On 28 July 1943, strike and bomber production was to be scaled down, and fighter and bomber destroyer production given precedence. On 3 August 1943, Milch contradicted this and declared that this increase in fighter production would not affect production of the Ju 87, Ju 188, Ju 288 and Ju 290. This was an important consideration as the life expectancy of a Ju 87 had been reduced (since 1941) from 9.5 months to 5.5 months, to just some 100 operational flying hours. On 26 October, General der Schlachtflieger Ernst Kupfer reported the Ju 87 could no longer survive in operations and that the Focke-Wulf Fw 190F should take its place. Milch finally agreed and ordered the minimal continuance of Ju 87 D-3 and D-5 production for a smooth transition period. In May 1944, production wound down. 78 Ju 87s were built in May and 69 rebuilt from damaged machines. In the next six months 438 Ju 87 Ds and Gs were added to the Ju 87 force as new or repaired aircraft. It is unknown whether any Ju 87s were built from parts unofficially after December 1944 and the end of production.

Overall some 550 Ju 87 As and B2s were completed at the Junkers factory in Dessau. Production of the Ju 87 R and D variants were passed to the Weserflug company, which was to produce 5,930 of the 6,500 Ju 87s produced in total. During the course of the war little damage was done to the WFG plant at Bremen. Attacks throughout 1940-45 caused little lasting damage and succeeded only damaging some Ju 87 airframes, which was in "contrast" to the Focke-Wulf plant in Bremen. At Berlin-Templehof little delay and damage was caused to Ju 87 production, despite the heavy bombings and large-scale destruction inflicted on other targets. The WFG was again unscathed. The Junkers factory at Dessau was heavily attacked, but not until Ju 87 production had ceased. The Ju 87 repair facility at the Wels aircraft works was destroyed on 30 May 1944, and the site abandoned Ju 87 links.

Ju 87 G-2s over the Eastern Front, winter 1943-44.

Among the many German aircraft designs that participated in the Legion Condor and Spanish Civil War, a single Ju 87 A-0 (the V4 prototype) was allocated serial number 29-1 and was assigned to the VJ/88, the experimental Staffel of the Legion's fighter wing. The aircraft was secretly loaded onto the Spanish ship Usaramo and departed Hamburg harbor on the night of 1 August 1936, arriving in Cadiz five days later.

The only known information pertaining to its combat career in Spain is that it was piloted by Unteroffizier Herman Beuer, and took part in the Nationalist offensive against Bilbao in 1937. Presumably the aircraft was then secretly returned to Germany.

In January 1938 three Ju 87 As arrived. Several problems became evident - the spatted undercarriage sank into muddy airfield surfaces, and the spats were temporarily removed. In addition, the maximum 500 kg (1,100 lb) bomb load could only be carried if the gunner vacated his seat, and the bomb load was therefore restricted to 250 kg (550 lb). These aircraft supported the Nationalist forces and carried out anti-shipping missions until they returned to Germany in October 1938.

The A-1s were replaced by five Ju 87 B-1s. With the war coming to an end they found little to do and were used to support Heinkel He 111s attacking Republican positions. As the Ju 87 A-0 had been, the B-1s were returned discreetly to the Reich.

The experience of the Spanish Civil War had been invaluable - air and ground crews perfected their skills, and equipment was evaluated under combat conditions. Although no Ju 87s had been lost in Spain, however, the Ju 87 had not been tested against numerous and well-coordinated fighter opposition, and this lesson was to be learned later at great cost to the Stuka crews.

All Stuka units were moved to Germany's eastern border in preparation for the invasion of Poland. On the morning of August 15, 1939, during a mass formation dive bombing demonstration for high ranking commanders of the Luftwaffe at Neuhammer training grounds near Sagan, 13 Ju-87 with 26 crew members were lost when they crashed into the ground almost simultaneously. The planes dived through cloud, expecting to release their practice bombs and pull out of the dive once below the cloud ceiling, unaware that on that particular day the ceiling was too low and unexpected ground mist formed, leaving them no time to pull out of the dive.

On 1 September 1939, the Wehrmacht invaded Poland triggering World War II . Generalquartiermeister der Luftwaffe records indicate a total force of 366 Ju 87 A and Bs were available for operations on the 31 August 1939. At exactly 0426, a Kette ("chain" or flight of three) of Ju 87s of 3./StG 1 led by Staffelkapitän Oberleutnant Bruno Dilly carried out the first bombing attack of the war. The aim was to destroy the Polish demolition charges wired to the Dirschau bridges over the Vistula River. The Stukas attacked just 11 minutes before the official German declaration of hostilities and hit the targets. However, the mission failed and the Poles destroyed the bridge before the Germans could reach it.

A Ju 87 achieved the first air victory during World War II on 1 September 1939 in the morning, when Rottenführer Leutnant Frank Neubert of I./StG 2 "Immelmann" shot down a Polish PZL P.11c fighter, while it was taking off from Balice airfield, piloted by Captain Mieczysław Medwecki, who was killed in the engagement. The Luftwaffe had a few anti-shipping naval units such as 4.(St)/TrGr 186. This unit performed effectively, sinking the 1540-ton destroyer ORP Wicher and minelayer ORP Gryf of the Polish Navy (both moored in a harbour).

On one occasion six Polish divisions trapped by encircling German forces were forced to surrender after a relentless four-day bombardment by StG 51, 76 and 77. Employed in this assault were the 50 kg (110 lb) fragmentation bombs which caused appalling casualties to the Polish ground troops. Demoralized, the Poles surrendered. The Stukas also participated in the Battle of Bzura which resulted in the breaking of Polish resistance. The Sturzkampfgeschwader alone dropped 388 tonnes (428 tons) of bombs during this battle.

Once again, enemy air opposition was light, the Stukawaffe (Stuka force) losing just 31 aircraft during the campaign.

Operation Weserübung began on 9 April 1940 with the invasions of Norway and Denmark, Denmark capitulated within the day whilst Norway continued to resist with British and French help.

The campaign was not the classic "Blitzkrieg" of fast-moving armoured divisions supported by air-power as the mountainous terrain ruled out close Panzer/Stuka cooperation. Instead the Germans relied on Fallschirmjäger (paratroops), airborne troops transported by Junkers Ju 52s and specialised ski troops. The strategic nature of the operation made the Stuka essential. The Ju 87s were given the role of ground attack and anti-shipping missions. The Stuka was to prove the most effective weapon in the Luftwaffe's armoury carrying out the latter.

On 9 April, the first Stukas took off at 10.59 hours from occupied airfields to destroy Oscarsborg Fortress, after the loss of the German cruiser Blücher which caused disruption of the amphibious landings in Oslo through Oslofjord. The 22 Ju 87s had helped suppress the Norwegian defenders during the ensuing Battle of Drøbak Sound but the defenders did not surrender until after Oslo had been captured. As a result, the German naval operation failed. StG 1 caught the 735 ton Norwegian destroyer Æger off Stavanger and hit her in the engine room. Æger was run aground and scuttled. The Stukageschwader were now equipped with the new Ju 87 R, which differed from the Ju 87 B by having increased internal fuel capacity and two 300l underwing drop tanks for more range.

The Stukas, however, had numerous successes against Allied naval vessels. HMS Bittern was sunk on 30 April. The French large destroyer Bison was sunk along with HMS Afridi by Sturzkampfgeschwader 1 on 3 May 1940 during the evacuation from Namsos. Bison's forward magazine was hit, killing 108 of the crew. Afridi, which attempted to rescue Bison's survivors, was sunk with the loss of 63 sailors.

The Stukawaffe had learned some lessons from the Polish and Norwegian campaigns. The failures of Poland and the Stukas of I.StG 1 to silence the Oscarborg fort ensured even more attention was paid to pin-point bombing during the Phoney War period. This was to pay off in the Western campaign. When Fall Gelb began on 10 May 1940, the Stuka helped swiftly neutralise the fortress of Eben Emael. The HQ of the Commander responsible for ordering the destruction of the bridges along the Albert Canal was stationed in the village of Lanaeken (14 km/ mi to the north). However the Stuka demonstrated its accuracy when the small building was destroyed after receiving four direct hits. As a result only one of the three bridges was destroyed allowing the German Army to rapidly advance.

The Sturzkampfgeschwader were also instrumental in achieving the breakthrough at the Battle of Sedan. The Stukawaffe flew 300 sorties against French positions, with StG 77 alone flying 201 individual missions. When resistance was organised, the Ju 87s were vulnerable. For example, on 12 May, near Sedan, six French Curtiss H-75s from Groupe de Chasse I/5 attacked a formation of Ju 87s shooting down 11 out of 12 unescorted Ju 87s without loss to themselves.

The Luftwaffe also benefited from excellent ground-to-air communications throughout the campaign. Radio equipped forward liaison officers could call upon the Stukas and direct them to attack enemy positions along the axis of advance. In some cases the Stukas responded to requests in 10–20 minutes. Oberstleutnant Hans Seidemann (Richthofen's Chief of Staff) said that "never again was such a smoothly functioning system for discussing and planning joint operations achieved".

During the Battle of Dunkirk many Allied ships were lost to Ju 87 attacks. The French destroyer L' Adroit had already been sunk on 21 May. The paddle steamer Crested Eagle was sunk on 28 May 1940. The British destroyer HMS Grenade was sunk on 29 May and several other vessels damaged by Stuka attack. On 29 May, the Allies had lost 31 vessels sunk and 11 damaged. In total, 89 merchantmen (of 126,518 grt) were lost, and the Royal Navy lost 29 of its 40 destroyers (8 sunk, 23 damaged and out of service). Allied air power was ineffective and disorganised, and as a result the Stuka losses were mainly due to ground fire. Some 120 machines, one-third of the Stuka force, were destroyed or damaged to all causes.

For the Battle of Britain, the Luftwaffe's Order of battle consisted of five Geschwader equipped with the Ju 87. Lehrgeschwader 2's IV.(St), Sturzkampfgeschwader 1's III. Gruppe and Sturzkampfgeschwader 2's III. Gruppe, Sturzkampfgeschwader 51 and Sturzkampfgeschwader 3's I. Gruppe were committed to the battle. As an anti-shipping weapon the Ju 87 proved a potent weapon in the early stages. On 4 July 1940, StG 2 made a successful attack on a convoy in the English Channel, sinking four freighters, the Britsum, the Dallas City, the Deucalion and Kolga. Six more were damaged. That afternoon 33 Ju 87s delivered the single most deadly air assault on British territory in history, when 33 Ju 87s of III./StG 51, avoiding Royal Air Force (RAF) interception, sank the 5,500 ton anti-aircraft ship HMS Foylebank in Portland Harbour, killing 176 of its 298-strong crew. One of Foylebank's gunners, Leading Seaman John F. Mantle continued to fire on the Stukas as the ship sank. He was awarded a posthumous Victoria Cross for remaining at his post despite being mortally wounded. Mantle may have been responsible for the single Ju 87 lost during the raid.

During August, the Ju 87s also had some success. On 13 August the opening of the main German attacks on airfields took place. It was known to the Luftwaffe as Adlertag (Eagle Day) Messerschmitt Bf 109s of Jagdgeschwader 26 were sent out in advance of the main strike and successfully drew off RAF fighters, allowing 86 Ju 87s of StG 1 to attack RAF Detling unhindered. The attack killed the station commander, destroyed 20 RAF aircraft on the ground and a great many of the airfield's many buildings. However, Detling was not an RAF Fighter Command station.

The Battle of Britain proved for the first time that the Junkers Ju 87 was vulnerable in hostile skies against well-organised and determined fighter opposition. The Ju 87, like other dive bombers, was slow and possessed inadequate defences. Furthermore, it could not be effectively protected by fighters because of its low speed, and the very low altitudes at which it ended its dive bomb attacks. The Stuka depended on air superiority, the very thing being contested over Britain. It was withdrawn from attacks on Britain in August after prohibitive losses, leaving the Luftwaffe without precision ground-attack aircraft.

Steady losses had occurred throughout their participation in the battle. On 18 August, a day known as the "hardest day" as both sides suffered heavy losses, the Stuka was withdrawn after 16 were destroyed and many others damaged. According to the Generalquartiermeister der Luftwaffe, 59 Stukas were destroyed and 33 damaged, to varying degrees, in six weeks of operations. Over 20% of the total Stuka strength had been lost between 8 August and 18 August; with the myth of the Stuka shattered. The Ju 87s did succeed in sinking six warships, 14 merchant ships, badly damaging seven airfields and three radar stations, and destroying 49 British aircraft, mainly on the ground.

On 19 August the units of VIII. Fliegerkorps moved up from their bases around Cherbourg-Octeville and concentrated in the Pas de Calais under Luftflotte 2, closer to the area of the proposed invasion of Britain. On 13 September, the Luftwaffe targeted airfields again, with a small number of Ju 87s crossing the coast at Selsey and heading for Tangmere. After a lull, anti-shipping operations attacks were resumed by some Ju 87 units from 1 November 1940, as part of the new winter tactic of enforcing a blockade. Over the next 10 days, seven merchant ships were sunk or damaged, mainly in the Thames Estuary, for the loss of four Ju 87s. On 14 November, 19 Stukas from III./St.G 1 with escort drawn from JG 26 and JG 51 went out against another convoy; as no targets were found over the estuary, the Stukas proceeded to attack Dover, their alternate target.

Bad weather resulted in a decline of anti-shipping operations, and before long the Ju 87 Gruppen began re-deploying to the soon-to-be Eastern Front, as part of the concealed build-up for Operation Barbarossa. By spring 1941, only St.G 1 with 30 Ju 87s remained facing the United Kingdom. Operations on a small scale continued throughout the winter months into March. Targets included ships at sea, the Thames Estuary, the Chatham naval dockyard and Dover and night-bomber sorties made over the Channel. These attacks were resumed in the following winter.

In response to the Italian defeats in Greece and North Africa the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht ordered the deployment of some German forces to these theatres. Amongst the Luftwaffe contingent deployed was the Geschwaderstab StG 3 which touched down in Sicily in December 1940. In the next few days, two Gruppen- some 80 Stukas - were deployed under X. Fliegerkorps.

The first task of the Korps was to attack British shipping passing between Sicily and Africa. The Ju 87s first made their presence felt by subjecting the British aircraft carrier HMS Illustrious to heavy attack. The crews were confident that they could sink it as the flight deck had an area of about 6,500 square metres. On 10 January 1941, the Stuka crews were told that four direct hits with 500 kg (1,100 lb) bombs would be enough to sink the carrier. The Ju 87s delivered six and three damaging near-misses, but the ship's engines remained untouched and she made for the besieged harbour of Malta.

The Italian Regia Aeronautica was equipped for a while with the Stukas. In 1939, Italian government asked the RLM to supply 100 Ju 87s. Italian pilots were sent to Graz in Austria, to be trained for dive-bombing aircraft. In the summer, 1940 about 100 Ju 87 B-1s, some of them ex-Luftwaffe machines, were handed over to their Italian ally, and delivered to 96° Gruppo Bombardamento a Tuffo. The Italian Stuka, re-named Picchiatello, was in turn assigned to Gruppi 97°, 101° and 102°. The "Picchiatelli" were used against Malta and Allied convoys in Mediterranean, in North Africa (where they took part in conquering Tobruk). They were used by Regia Aeronautica up to 1942. Some of the Picchiatelli saw action in the opening phase of the Italian invasion of Greece in October 1940. The numbers were low and ineffective. The Italian forces were quickly pushed back. By early 1941, the Greeks had pushed into Italian occupied Albania. Once again Hitler decided to send military aid to his allies.

In March, the pro-German Yugoslav government was toppled. A furious Hitler ordered the attack to be expanded to include Yugoslavia. Operation Marita commenced on 7 April. The Luftwaffe committed StG 1, 2 and 77 to the campaign. The Stuka once again spearheaded the air assault with a front line strength of 300 machines, against minimal Yugoslav resistance in the air, giving the Stukas a fearsome reputation in this region. Operating unmolested they took a heavy toll of ground forces, suffering only light losses to ground fire. The effectiveness of the dive-bombers helped bring about Yugoslav capitulation in just ten days. The Stukas also took a peripheral part in Operation Punishment - Hitler's retribution bombing of Belgrade. The dive-bombers were to attack airfields and known anti-aircraft gun positions whilst the level bombers struck civilian targets. Belgrade was badly damaged, and 2,271 people were reported killed and 12,000 injured.

In Greece, despite British aid, little air opposition was encountered. As the Allies withdrew and resistance collapsed, the Allies began evacuating to Crete. The Stukas proved effective in inflicting severe damage on Allied shipping. On 22 April, the 1,389 ton destroyers Psara and Ydra were sunk. In the next two days, the Greek Naval base at Piraeus lost 23 vessels to Stuka attack.

During the Battle of Crete the Ju 87s also played a significant role. On 21–22 May 1941, the Germans attempted to send in reinforcements to Crete by sea, but lost 10 vessels to "Force D" under the command of Rear-Admiral Glennie. The force consisting of the cruisers HMS Dido, Orion and Ajax forced the remaining German ships to retreat. The Stukas were called upon to deal with the British Naval threat. On 21 May, the destroyer HMS Juno was sunk, and the next day, the battleship HMS Warspite was damaged and the cruiser HMS Gloucester was sunk with the loss of 45 officers and 648 ratings. The Ju 87s also crippled the cruiser HMS Fiji that morning, (she was later finished off by Bf 109 fighter bombers) while sinking the destroyer HMS Greyhound with a single hit. As the Battle of Crete drew to a close the Allies began yet another withdrawal. On 23 May the Royal Navy also lost the destroyers HMS Kashmir and Kelly sunk followed by HMS Hereward on 26 May; Orion and Dido were also severely damaged. Orion had been evacuating 1,100 soldiers to North Africa and lost 260 of them killed and another 280 wounded during the attacks.

The Sturzkampfgeschwader faithfully supported Generalfeldmarschall Erwin Rommel's Deutsches Afrikakorps in its two year campaign in North Africa, helping it achieve considerable success. However, as the tide turned and Allied air power grew in the autumn of 1942, the Ju 87 became very vulnerable, and losses were heavy. The entry of the Americans into North Africa during Operation Torch made the situation far worse: the Stuka was obsolete in what was now a fighter-bomber's war. The Bf 109 and Fw 190 could at least fight on equal terms after dropping their ordnance , but the Stuka could not. The Junkers' vulnerability was demonstrated on 11 November 1942 when 15 Ju 87 Ds were all shot down by United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) Curtiss P-40Fs in minutes.

By 1943, the Allies enjoyed total air superiority in North Africa. The Ju 87s ventured out in Rotte strength only, often jettisoning their bombs at the first sight of enemy aircraft. Adding to this trouble the German fighters had only enough fuel to cover the Ju 87s at their most vulnerable; on take off. After that the Stukas were on their own.

The dive bombers continued to support operations in Southern Europe; after the Italian surrender in September 1943, the Ju 87 helped Germany achieve the last campaign-sized victory over the Western Allies, the Dodecanese Campaign. The Greek Dodecanese Islands had been occupied by the British; the Luftwaffe reacted by committing 75 Stukas (of StG 3 with bases in Megara and Rhodos) to recover the islands. With the RAF bases some 500 kilometres (310 mi) away, the Ju 87 helped the German landing forces to achieve a rapid conquest of the Islands.

On 22 June 1941, the Wehrmacht commenced Operation Barbarossa, the invasion of the Soviet Union. The Luftwaffe order of battle of 22 June 1941 contained four different Sturzkampfgeschwader. VIII. Fliegerkorps under the command of General der Flieger Wolfram von Richthofen was equipped with units Stab, II., and III./StG 1. Also included were Stab, I., II., and III. of Sturzkampfgeschwader 2 Immelmann. Attached to II. Fliegerkorps, under the Command of General der Flieger Bruno Loerzer, were Stab, I., II., and III. of StG 77. Luftflotte 5, under the command of Generaloberst Hans-Jürgen Stumpff, operating from Norway's Arctic Circle, were allotted IV. Gruppe (St)/Lehrgeschwader 1 (LG 1).

The first Stuka loss on the Soviet-German front occurred early at 03:40–03:47 in the morning of the 22 June. While being escorted by Bf 109s from JG 51 to attack a fortress at Brest, Oberleutnant Karl Führing of StG 77 was shot down by a I-153. The Sturzkampfgeschwader had suffered only two losses on the opening day of Barbarossa. As a result of the Luftwaffe's attention, the Soviet Air Force in the Western Soviet Union was nearly destroyed. The official report claimed 1,489 Soviet aircraft destroyed. Göring ordered this checked. After picking their way through the wreckages across the front, Luftwaffe officers found that the tally exceeded 2,000. In the following two days the Soviets reported the loss of another 1,922 aircraft. Soviet aerial resistance, whilst it continued, ceased to be effective, and the Luftwaffe maintained air superiority until the end of the year.

The Ju 87 took a huge toll on Soviet ground forces, helping to break up counterattacks of Soviet armour, eliminating strong points, and disrupting the enemy supply lines. An example of the Stuka's effectiveness occurred on 5 July when StG 77 knocked out 18 trains and 500 vehicles. As Panzergruppe 1 and 2 forged bridgeheads across the Dnieper river and closed in on Kiev the Ju 87s again rendered invaluable support. On 13 September Stukas from StG 1 destroyed all the rail networks in the vicinity as well as inflicting heavy casualties on escaping Red Army columns, for the loss of a single Ju 87. Days later, on 23 September, Hans-Ulrich Rudel (who was to become the most decorated serviceman in the Wehrmacht) of StG 2, sank the Soviet battleship Marat, during an air attack on Kronstadt harbor in the Leningrad area, with a hit to the bow with a 1,000 kg (2,200 lb) bomb.

Also during this action Leutnant Egbert Jaeckel sank the destroyer Minsk, while the destroyer Steregushchiy and submarine M-74 were also sunk. The Stukas also crippled the battleship Oktyabrskaya Revolutsiya and the destroyers Silnyy and Grozyashchiy in exchange for two Ju 87s shot down.

Elsewhere on the Eastern front the Junkers assisted Army Group Centre in its drive toward Moscow. From 13–22 December, 420 vehicles and 23 tanks were destroyed by StG 77, greatly improving the morale of the German infantry, who were by now on the defensive. StG 77 finished the campaign as the most effective Sturzkampfgeschwader. It had destroyed 2,401 vehicles, 234 tanks, 92 artillery batteries and 21 trains for the loss of 25 Ju 87s to hostile action.

At the end of Barbarossa, StG 1 had lost 60 Stukas in aerial combat and one on the ground. StG 2 lost 39 Ju 87s in the air and two on the ground, StG 77 lost 29 of their dive-bombers in the air and three on the ground (25 to enemy action). IV.(St)/LG1 operating from Norway lost 24 Ju 87s, all in aerial combat.

In early 1942, the Ju 87s were to give the Germany Army (Heer) yet more valuable support. On 29 December 1941 the Soviet 44th Army landed on the Kerch Peninsula. The Luftwaffe was only able to dispatch meager reinforcements of four Kampfgruppen (Bomber Group. Note: not Kampfgeschwader, meaning Bomber Wing) and two Sturzkampfgruppen, (Dive Bomber Groups) belonging to StG 77. With air-superiority, the Ju 87s operated with impunity. In the first 10 days, ½ the landing force was destroyed, while sea supply lines were cut off by the Stukas inflicting heavy losses on Soviet shipping. The Ju 87s effectiveness against Soviet armour was not yet potent. Later versions of the T-34 tank could withstand Stuka attack, in general, unless a direct hit was scored, but the Soviet 44th Army had only obsolescent types with thin armour which were nearly all destroyed.

During the Battle of Sevastopol the Stukas mercilessly bombed the trapped Soviet forces. Some Ju 87 pilots flew up to 300 sorties against the Soviet defenders. Luftflotte 4's StG 77 flew 7,708 combat sorties dropping 3,537 tonnes of bombs on the city. Their efforts help secure the capitulation of Soviet forces on 4 July.

For the German summer offensive, Fall Blau, the Luftwaffe had concentrated 1,800 aircraft into Luftflotte 4 making it the largest and most powerful single air-command in the world. The Stukawaffe strength stood at 151. During the Battle of Stalingrad Stukas flew thousands of sorties against Soviet positions in the city. StG 1, 2 and 77 flew 320 individual sorties on 14 October 1942. As the German Sixth Army pushed the Soviets into a 1,000 metre enclave on the West bank of the Volga river, 1,208 Stuka sorties were flown against this small strip of land. However, the intense air attack, though causing horrific losses on Soviet units, failed to destroy them. The Luftwaffe's Sturzkampfgeschwader made maximum effort during this phase of the war. They flew an average of 500 sorties per day and caused heavy losses among Soviet forces, losing an average of only one Stuka per day.

The Battle of Stalingrad marked the high point in the fortunes of the Junkers Ju 87 Stuka. As the strength of the Soviet Air Forces grew, they gradually wrestled control of the skies from the Luftwaffe. From this point onward the vulnerability of the Stuka to fighter attack caused losses to increase.

The Stuka was also heavily involved in Operation Citadel, the Battle of Kursk. The Luftwaffe committed I, II, III./St.G 1 and III./StG 3 under the command of Luftflotte 6. I., II, III. of StGs 2 and 3 were committed under the command of Hans Seidemann's Fliegerkorps VIII. Hauptmann Rudel's cannon-equipped Ju 87 Gs had a devastating effect on Soviet armour at Orel and Belgorod. The Ju 87s participated in a huge aerial counter-offensive lasting from 16 July–31 July against a Soviet offensive at Khotynets and saved two German armies from encirclement, reducing the attacking Soviet 11th Guard Army to just 33 tanks by 20 July. The Soviet offensive had been completely halted from the air.

However losses were considerable. Fliegerkorps VIII lost eight Ju 87s on 8 July, six on 9 July, six on 10 July and another eight on 11 July. The Stuka arm also lost eight of their Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross holders. StG 77 lost 24 Ju 87s in the period 5–31 July (StG had lost 23 in July–December 1942) while StG 2 lost another 30 aircraft in the same period. In September 1943, three of the Stuka units were re-equipped with the Fw 190 Schlachtgeschwader. In the face of overwhelming air opposition, the dive-bomber required heavy protection from German fighters to counter the Soviet fighters. Some units like StG 2 Immelmann continued to operate with great success throughout 1943-45 operating the Ju 87 G variants equipped with 37 mm cannons, which became effective tank killers, although in increasingly small numbers.

In the wake of the defeat at Kursk, Ju 87s played a vital defensive role on the southern wing of the Eastern Front. To combat the Luftwaffe, the Soviets could deploy some 3,000 fighter aircraft, as a result the Stukas suffered heavily. StG 77 lost 30 Ju 87s in August 1943 as did StG 2 Immelmann, who also reported the loss of 30 aircraft in combat operations. Despite these losses, Ju 87s helped the 29. Armeekorps break out of an encirclement near the Sea of Azov. The Battle of Kiev also included substantial use of the Ju 87 units, although again, unsuccessful in stemming the advances. The Stuka units were now, with the loss of air superiority, becoming vulnerable on the ground as well. Some Luftwaffe Stuka aces were lost this way. In the aftermath of Kursk, Stuka strength had fallen to 184 aircraft in total. This was well below the 50 percent of required strength. On 18 October 1943, StG 1, 2, 3, 5 and 77 were redesignated as Schlachtgeschwader wings, reflecting their repurposed ground-attack role, as these combat wings were now also using more generalized ground-attack aircraft, such as the Fw 190F-series aircraft. The Luftwaffe's individual dive-bomber units had ceased to exist.

Towards the end of the war, as overhelming air superiority was gained by the Allies, the Stuka was being replaced by ground-attack versions of the Fw 190. By early 1944, the number of Ju 87 units and operational aircraft entered into terminal decline. As the Soviet summer offensive, Operation Bagration got underway, 12 Ju 87 Gruppen and five mixed Gruppen (including Fw 190s) were on the Luftwaffe's order of battle on 26 June 1944. Gefechtsverband Kuhlmey, a mixed aircraft unit, which included large numbers of Stuka dive bombers, was rushed to the Finnish front in the summer of 1944, and was instrumental in halting the Soviet fourth strategic offensive. The unit claimed 200 Soviet tanks and 150 Soviet aircraft destroyed for 41 losses. By this juncture, the Luftwaffe continued to resist Soviet air attacks but it had little impact on the ground war.

By 31 January 1945, only 104 Ju 87s remained operational with their units. The other mixed Schlacht units contained a further 70 Ju 87s and Fw 190s between them. Chronic fuel shortages were now keeping the Stukas grounded and sorties decreased until the end of the war in May 1945.


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