Wednesday, March 28, 2012


This is the vehicle used in the Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2.

Operation of the SDV requires specialized training by elements of the US Navy SEALs.

The SEAL Delivery Vehicle (SDV) MK VIII was developed in 1975 by United States UDT (Underwater Demolition Team) / SEAL (SEa, Air and Land) teams as a reusable, submersible underwater vehicle.

US Navy SEALs are essentially the grandsons of the World War 2 underwater demolition teams charged with blowing up underwater beach obstructions and performing vital shore terrain scouting before assaults by the regular land forces. UDT teams of those days had problems of limited compressed air time and swimming stamina when launched from their PT boats or submarines, having to make their way to the beach and find their way back out to sea. This method of operation reduced mission times and limited the operations of this critical component to American battlefield supremacy. As such, the SDV was ultimately developed.

As a submersible underwater vehicle, the SDV can carry SEALs and their equipment, increasing mission time while the swimmers personal energy level is maintained for the operation ahead.

The SEAL Team pilot, co-pilot and passengers are situated in fully-flooded compartments and use their own individual Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus (SCUBA) during the mission. Operational scenarios for these SEALs can include underwater reconnaissance and surveillance, beach and surf observation and combat swimmer attacks.

Any Attack Submarine can be adapted to carry the ubiquitous SDV.

The Dry Dock Shelter (DDS) is attached to the deck of the submarine (behind the sail) and is fitted so the submarine's weapon or sensor operations are not limited or affected in any way. The DDS is portable and can be air-lifted to its preset location and installed in 12 hours.

The SDV itself is propelled by an electric propulsion system powered by rechargeable silver-zinc batteries.

Trouble with the batteries was experienced on long missions so the battery size was increased to compensate. The round nose shaped SDV maintains buoyancy and pitch attitude by the pilot using ballast and trim controls in the cockpit. For controlling the vertical and horizontal angles of the vehicle, the pilot has a joystick control that operates the forward bow planes and the aft rudder and elevator. The mini instrument panel supports Doppler navigation sonar that indicates speed, heading, depth and distance traveled. The electronic instruments are sealed within watertight compartments and have been designed for easy removal/replacement.

Seal graduates who are assigned to SDV School in Coronado, California, spend some three months in training and, upon completion, are then assigned to SEAL Team One in Hawaii or SEAL Team Two in Little Creek, Virginia.

The course concentrates on diving and navigating the MK-VIII SDV in a variety of conditions and scenarios. As operation of this craft can be quite dangerous and technical - with the lives of the crew and SEAL Team at stake - it takes a good amount of time to effectively pilot the SDV to fullest potential. Though many are expelled from the course, heroic reputations can be made if a SEAL SDV trainee can graduate as a skilled pilot. Despite its Cold War legacy, details of the SDV training program itself naturally remain a guarded secret.

Specifications for the SEAL Delivery Vehicle (SDV) Mk VIII

Length: 15.4ft (4.69m)
Beam: 6.2ft (1.89m)
Draught: 0.2ft (0.06m)
Surface Speed: 18kts (21mph)
Complement: 4
Engine: 1 x Rechargeable Silver-Zinc Battery-powered Motor; 1 x shaft.

How to get more visitors to your site without paying any money


If any of you have any blogs or websites that needs more traffic, join the programme below and you would get quality traffic on your website. Click on this link below to register. Every 20 second website you view, you will get one visit to your website. No money involved just a fair 1 for 1 exchange for traffic.

Tuesday, March 27, 2012

Beretta BM 59

Beretta BM59 - left side view, bayonet (in sheath) and bipod attached

Since the end of the World War 2, Italy adopted the US-designed M1 Garand rifle in .30-06 (7.62x63mm) and manufactured it under license. This semi-automatic rifle proved itself very well during WW2 but in the late 1950s it was seriously outdated and obsolete, so Italian military wanted a new rifle, chambered for the NATO-standard cartridge, 7.62x51mm. The most cost-efficient way to build a new rifle was to redesign the old good M1, and this was done by Pietro Beretta SPa. New gun, designated as Beretta BM59, was adopted in 1959 and served with Italian, Indonesian and Moroccan armies. It should be noted that earliest BM59s were manufactured from available M1 parts, including rechambered barrels. In the late 1980s BM59 was rplaced in Italian service with Beretta AR70/90 assault rifles.

Same gun, right side view

Basically, the BM59 can be described as re-chambered M1 Garand, with addition of the removable 20 rounds magazine and select fire trigger. Another addition was a flash-hider of NATO-standard diameter, which also served as a rifle grenade launcher. To launch grenades, one must turn on gas cut-off valve by raising grenade front sight, mounted on the gas block. If it will not be done, the excessive gas pressure will damage the rifle. BM59 is a gas operated rifle, with gas chamber and gas piston located under the barrel. Chamber locks by the rotating bolt with two massive lugs. Fire mode selector/safety switch is located at the front of the trigger guard, charging handle is attached to the gas rod and reciprocates during the fire cycle.

Beretta BM59 Para (folding buttstock)

BM59 was available in 4 modification:
* BM59 Mark I had a wooden stock with semi-pistol grip.
* BM59 Mark II had a wooden stock with pistol grip to achieve a better control during the full-auto fire;
* BM59 Mark III, or Ital TA, was a gun with a pistol grip and a metallic folding buttstock, and was intended for Mountain troops; BM59 Para was similar to BM59 Ital TA but had shorter barrel and shorter flash-hider, and was intended for paratroopers.
* BM59 Mark IV, had a heavier barrel and plastic stock, and was used as a light squad automatic weapon.

Beretta BM59 - civilian semi-auto version withouth gas cut-off and flash-hider / grenade launcher

Caliber: 7.62x51 mm NATO (.308 Winchester)
Action: Gas operated, rotating bolt
Overall length: 1095 mm
Barrel length: 491 mm
Weigth: 4.4 kg empty
Rate of fire: 750 rounds per minute
Magazine capacity: 20 rounds

Thursday, March 22, 2012

Heinkel He 115 (pictures and history)

The Heinkel He 115 is oft-regarded as one of the best seaplanes to have served in World War 2 on any side.

By all accounts, the He 115 series of floatplane aircraft was regarded as the finest such aircraft in all of World War 2. She served in a variety of offensive- and defensive- minded roles, attacking enemy shipping whenever possible and making life in waterways a living hell. She also served well in the mine-laying role and consistently fed the North Sea a healthy dose of anti-ship mines for some duration. Beyond her operations with Germany, the countries of Bulgaria, Finland, Norway and Sweden all utilized this fine machine at one point or another. Additionally, the United Kingdom and their Royal Air Force made use of at least four requisitioned Norwegian He 115s in several clandestine operations to follow. Some 500 production examples were reported to have existed.

The He 115 received its origins in a 1935 Reich Air Ministry requirement calling for a twin-engine floatplane design to handle a variety of military maritime roles - this included that of torpedo bomber, mine layer and reconnaissance platform. Maritime aircraft design dictated certain requirements all its own, predominantly in operational range and in structural integrity. As these aircraft would most likely operate far from their launch points and against the adverse conditions of the sea, this new design would have to be something of a success in almost all areas of her airframe. While the torpedo role was slated as her primary function, the mine-laying and reconnaissance roles would serve as her secondary roles.

In response, Hamburger Flugzeugbau (then a subsidiary of Blohm & Voss, makers of many successful civilian and military floatplanes and flying boats of the time) produced the Ha 140 while Heinkel put forth their He 115. Both designs showed promise and both were selected for prototype construction. Five total prototypes would make up the He 115 development while three would become of the Ha 140. The He 115 proved the more successful approach and resources were allocated to the Heinkel program, leaving the Ha 140 to the history books.

The initial prototype -He 115 V1 - took to the air in August of 1937, setting no fewer than eight international payload and speed records for an aircraft of this type through a series of test flights. The similar He 115 V2 followed in November of 1937. In March of 1938, the He 115 V3 was unveiled with a glassed cockpit - a design facet to become standard in all further He 115 designs. The He 115 V4 came online in May of 1938 and selected as the production form of the He 115 line. This prototype also made use of struts to replace the former's wires that were connecting the floats to the aircraft's fuselage. A further prototype, the He 115 V5, made its debut sometime in 1939. By comparison, the arrival of the He 115 was far better than anything the Allies could field at the time in the floatplane category. She was a technologically advanced design to say the least.

Design of the Heinkel He 115 was characterized by its identifiable floats affixed to the underside of each engine nacelle. The floats ran about the full length of the airframe, positioned along the forward half of the aircraft and connected to the fuselage by way of large thick struts. The fuselage was somewhat tubular in overall shape and noted for a highly-glazed portion encompassing the nose assembly and crew cabin. This windowed approached allowed for stellar visibility from nearly all angles within the aircraft and, with a three-man crew, much could be seen and discerned from the He 115's lofty position. The crewmember in the nose compartment held a position well below the other two crewmembers in terms of elevation. These two crew took their positions in a tandem, back-to-back seating arrangement in the elongated crew cabin, their elevated position offering up excellent vision as well. The fuselage tapered off into a long, though overly conventional, empennage sporting a single vertical tail fin with a clipped tip. The vertical tail fin base supported the applicable horizontal tail planes, each of wide spanning design. Wings were mid-to-low mounted monoplanes with slight dihedral, sporting a noticeably swept leading edge and a lesser so trailing edge. Each wingtip was curved providing for an elegant design. As the He 115 sat well above the waterline, crew access ladders were appended to the fuselage sides, at about amidships, and connected to the airframe from the rear of each pontoon. Engines were held in open-front nacelles and streamlined, tapering off into each wing element just before the flap components along the trailing edges and each powering three-bladed propellers.

The heart and soul of a torpedo bombing floatplane was naturally her armament provisions. While she was given a few choices in terms of armament - 7.92mm MG 15 and MG 17 series machine guns - for self-defense, her "bread-and-butter" was her anti-ship capabilities. This was addressed by the carrying of a single LTF 5 or LTF 6b series torpedo.

In place of this armament, the He 115 crew had access to a pair of SD 500 1,100lb or SC 250 550lb conventional drop bombs. Additionally, the He 115 was cleared for the mine laying role by way of using the LMB III or LMA series mines. After 1943, cannon armament in the form of 20mm MG 151 or 20mm MG FF types were fitted in the lower nose to help suppress ground-based flak guns during torpedo runs.

Production-wise, the He 115 V4 was the face of the He 115 family that began with the He 115A-0. This form was made up of ten pre-production aircraft and armed with a simple single defensive machine gun. It was not until the He 115A-1 added a nose-mounted machine gun did the aircraft gain a respectable defensive armament sphere of protection. The He 115A-1, in turn, produced the export He 115A-2 which were shipped off to Norway and Sweden to complete several pre-war orders. The He 115A-3 sported a revised communications suite and weapons bay.

The He 115B-1 series followed into production and featured an increase to fuel capacity resulting in longer operational ranges. The He 115B series produced three known subvariants designated as R1, R2 and R3. The He 115B-2 was similar in scope but given reinforced floats for hard-surface operations from snow and ice surfaces - essentially designed for Arctic operations.

The He 115C-1 brought about a better defensive armament scheme and resulted in four subvariants known simply as R1, R2, R3 and R4. The He 115C-2 sported reinforced floats as those found on the He 115B-2 production model. He 115C-3 became the dedicated minelayer variant while the He 115C-4 was the dedicated torpedo bomber variant. The He 115D became a "one-off" model that trialed a pair of 1,600 horsepower BMW 801C-series engines - though this model was not selected for mass production. The He 115E-1 was noted as being similar to the He 115C production series and featured still-improved armament capabilities.

In all, the basic form of the He 115 remained largely intact despite her various variants and subvariants. If there were changes of note, they mostly centered around the aircraft's armament or her avionics/communication suites. Other than that, the design proved quite sound, resulting in an abnormally long war time tenure for an aircraft of this classification.

In September of 1939, approximately 60 He 115A and He 115B systems were in operation. with the Kustenfliegergruppen, conducting some limited reconnaissance over the Balkans prior to the German invasion of Poland. At the start of official hostilities, He 115 flight groups were kept busy by way of mine-laying sorties across the North Sea. Flown by the 106th and 406th Coastal Aviation Groups (the latter launching out of northern Norway in 1942), the He 115 was used on these mine-laying runs across the east and southern coasts of England in an attempt to disrupt all merchant shipping and warship maneuvering in the region. The He 115 was called to action during the Battle of Britain and were mainly composed of He 115 A and He 115B series models. Some 33 of the available 60 operational aircraft were lost, mostly due to British coastal flak guns. By the end of the battle, the He 115C models were being placed into service. Hitler eventually halted his much coveted invasion of the British mainland due to mounting losses in the Battle of Britain. Additionally, mounting needs in other areas stopped further production of future He 115 systems for the moment.

The He 115 quickly proved its value against those critical Allied convoy runs across the Arctic shipping lanes. These convoys, delivering badly-needed supplies to the routing Soviet forces, were often fielded without air support and not as well-armed individually as one would hope. These slow-moving convoys provided relatively easy pickings, even for the under-armed and slow-moving He 115 floatplanes. The He 115C-4 production model was primarily responsible for torpedo attacks against these convoys. Regardless, the convoys completed successful runs and the improving war effort led to consistent air-based protection and better defensive armament on the ships themselves, negating the usefulness of the He 115 in this fashion.

By the time of the German invasion of Norway in April of 1940, the Norwegians had already purchased some seven He 115 examples. One was captured by the Germans in the early days of the campaign as paratrooper landings strategically enveloped and cut off key junctions and target points. A few German-owned He 115s were captured themselves by the Norwegians and promptly placed back into service against their former masters. Norwegian-crewed He 115s would serve in this fashion until the end of the German campaign, this completing in June of 1940 and resulting in the capitulation of the nation of Norway to the might of the Third Reich. Four of the Norwegian He 115 managed the long trip to England where the Norwegian government has escaped to. A fifth example landed to safety in Finland while a sixth escaping aircraft was lost somewhere over the North Sea attempting the flight out to the English mainland. The remaining He 115s of Norway were captured and placed into service with the Luftwaffe. The four examples that had made it to England were intended to be used in a leaf dropping campaign by the now displaced government. However, such a mission was deemed a failure in its early stages by the British and called off. Instead, these He 115s would serve the Royal Air Force (with Norwegian crews) proudly in clandestine operations across the coast of Norway and against targets reachable from the Mediterranean Sea. All of these remaining He 115s were ultimately lost before the end of the war in separate incidents and actions.

The Swedes operated a dozen He 115s under the designation of "T 2". These served the country well up until 1952. During the war, the He 115s were kept on standby and protected Swedish waterway interests in the region, ensuring the neutrality of the nation during the conflict and little else. It is of note that five of these twelve were lost to accident.

Production of He 115s began once again in 1943, these being the improved He 115E series models of which 141 were produced.

Despite its inherent floatplane limitations amidst the ever-changing front of sleek fighter planes and more-capable floatplane designs, the He 115 series as a whole would see operation through to the end of the war, no doubt proving the design as anything but excellent. When not dumping torpedoes into the water, or rendering a waterway useless with its mines, the He 115 was an equally adept performer in the maritime reconnaissance role when called upon to do so.

While in direct service with the Luftwaffe, the He 115 was flown largely by Kriegsmarine pilots during her wartime tenure.

Thursday, March 15, 2012

M-46 (pictures and history)

The M-46 has been widely distributed around the globe since its introduction in 1954.

The M-46 (formal designation of "130mm Towed Field Gun M1954) was a Soviet Cold War-era battlefield implementation designed to fulfill a variety of roles in support of infantry and armor actions. The system was first unveiled to Western observers in 1954 (hence its "M1954" designation) and subsequently went on to be fielded by a myriad of countries with relations to the Soviet Union. This included many military forces in the Middle East, across Africa and in South America as well as allied states in Eastern Europe. Despite its early Cold War roots, the M-46 still maintains a battlefield presence in the inventories of countries even today with modernization programs designed to increase the longevity and tactical usefulness of such a system.

Its success has been proven by the plethora of operators using the weapon system and the countless wars that she has participated in. Her notable operators have included (or still do) Afghanistan, Czechoslovakia, China, Croatia, Cuba, Finland (as the "130 K54"), India, Iraq, Iraq, Israel, Laos, North Korea, Pakistan, Russia (Soviet Union), Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Thailand, Vietnam, Yemen and Yugoslavia. Czechoslovakia, Finland and Serbia have all phased their M-46 systems out. Israel only received their M-46s as spoils from their many Middle East conflicts, with approximately 100 examples captured. The Chinese license production copy of the Soviet M-46 is designated as the Type 59-1 and produced under the NORINCO banner.

Her actions have seen the M-46 participate in the Sri Lankan Civil War (1983-2009), the Sino-Indian War (1962), the Indo-Pak War (1965), the Angolan Civil War (1975-2002), the South African Border War (1966-1989), the Six Day War (1967), the Sino-Soviet Border Conflict (1969), the Cambodian Civil War (1967-1975), the Vietnam War (1959-1975), the Yom Kipper War (1973), the Sino-Vietnamese War (1979), the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan (1979-1989), the Gulf War (1990-1991), the Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988), the Yugoslav Wars (1991-2001) and the Invasion of Iraq (2003).

Design of the M-46 is typical of weapons in this class. Her long, slender barrel sits out and over her base and carriage, sporting two large road wheels for transport (and additional pair of road wheels is sometimes added). The weapon system is supported by legs that fan out aft, semi-recessed into the ground to accept the violent recoil. There is an angular shield to either side of the barrel base for limited protection to the operating crew from small arms fire. Her muzzle brake is vented and noticeably large at the barrel end. Her size is such that she can be transported into action with relative ease when compared to her larger cousins and set up just about anywhere that her size allows.

Operation of the M-46 field gun revolves around a crew of eight personnel. The weapon system is towed by whatever means necessary to her pre-determined target zone and set up to fire. She weighs in at roughly 16,975lbs and features a 130mm caliber barrel. The breech is of a horizontal sliding wedge design and projectiles are manually loaded by the operating crew. The barrel can elevate from -2.5 degrees to 45 degrees and traverse up to 50 degrees. A rate-of-fire by a trained crew can reach six rounds per minute under normal conditions with five being reported for the sustained fire role. In the burst role, eight rounds per minute can be achieved. Muzzle velocity is 3,051 feet per second. Maximum range is out to 17 miles though this can be padded through the use of specialized ammunition and reach out to over 23.5 miles. The M-46 is provided with a night sight for direct fire.

Since most any artillery piece makes its name on the battlefield based on its adaptability and firepower, the M-46 proves no different in the types of projectiles she is designed to fire. This includes the Frag-HE (Fragmentation, High-Explosive), OF-43 and the Frag-HE, OF-44 rounds, ranged out to 27,500 and 22,500 meters respectively. The Frag-HE, ERFB-BB (Extended Range Full Bore - Base Bleed) round offers a range up to 38,000 meters. The APCBC-HE-T, BR-482 (along with its cousin the BR-482B) is ranged out to just 1,140 meters but is still effective for the given role. Other projectile types run the gamut of basic uses including illumination rounds, smoke rounds and chemical rounds. Projectiles feature variable charge.

The M-46 has since been replaced in the Russian inventory by the 2A36 Giatsint-B. This weapon system is further supported by the self-propelled 2S5 Giatsint-S as well.

Tuesday, March 13, 2012


The M777 is currently replacing the aging M198 howitzers.

The M777 is designated as an Ultra-lightweight Field Howitzer (UFH). The entire system weights less than 10,000lbs making the M777 the lightest gun of its kind. This kind of engineering has made the M777 extremely adaptable and transportable to the changing battlefield environment.

Rate of fire is reported at five rounds per minute (sustained rate of 2 per minute) and the barrel can sustain a lifespan of 2,650 firings. Rocket Assisted Projectiles (RAP) increase the effective range out to 18.6 miles (30km). The M777A1 features a custom-design digital firing system that uses the latest in positioning and targeting technology. The M777A1 system makes extensive use of titanium in its underlying structures and will be set to fire the new Excaliber precision projectile. The M777A1 has begun replacing the current generation of M198 howitzers in the US Army and US Marines inventory. The system was fielded in 2006.

Tuesday, March 6, 2012


The M67 hand grenade replaced the M61 hand grenade of the Vietnam War.

The M67 is a fragmentation-based hand-grenade utilized to supplement infantry actions in the field. The hand grenade concept is an ancient one, with roots dating back centuries. The principle behind the device is to inflict area damage to entrenched personnel by way of force-thrown high-velocity fragments distributed in a uniform pattern. The M67 is currently in service with US military forces among others and has proven a capable area-effect weapon. The M67 was selected as the replacement infantry hand grenade for the M61 series used in the Vietnam War.

The M67 is made up of a 2.5-inch diameter spherical steel case that contains some 6.5 ounces of high explosive substance made up of "Composition B" material. The grenade is fitted with a an internal M213 series fuze that ignites the explosive charge within. The explosion disintegrates the grenade casing itself, which in turn becomes the fragmentation component of this hand grenade. There is a four-to-five second window for the operator to throw the grenade at the target area based on the delay detonation cycle built into the device.

The actual detonation cycle is activated when the spring-loaded safety lever separates from the grenade while in flight. An internal firing pin then hits against a percussion cap and ignites the M213 fuze. This action is preceded by the operator having removed the pin to begin the detonation process in full. Reportedly, the pin can be inserted back into a live grenade so long as the safety portion of the grenade is still in place.

Range is dependent on the thrower while the lethal damage radius is reported to be approximately 16.4 feet, inflicting potential damage out to about 50 feet while its fragments can be found up to 750 feet away from the center of the blast zone. Such is the value of these little hand-held and thrown battlefield implements.

In Canadian service, the M67 falls under the designation of "C13".

Monday, March 5, 2012

Mauser 1918 T-Gewehr

The Mauser 13 mm anti-tank rifle (German: Tankgewehr M1918, usually abbreviated T-Gewehr) was the world's first anti-tank rifle,i.e. the first rifle designed for the sole purpose of destroying armored targets and the only anti-tank rifle to see service in World War 1. Approximately 15,800 were produced

It was a German weapon of World War I, appearing in February 1918. The Mauser Company began mass production at Oberndorf am Neckar in May 1918. The first of these off the production lines were issued to specially raised anti-tank detachments. The idea of using heavy calibre and high velocity rifles as anti-tank weapons originated in Germany. In June 1917, the German Army faced the menace of the Mark IV tank, and found that the armour-piercing 7.92 mm K bullet was no longer effective.

The rifle was a single shot bolt action rifle using the Mauser action, with rounds manually loaded into the chamber. The weapon had a pistol grip, bipod but no method of reducing the recoil such as a soft buttpad or muzzle brake. The iron sights were a front blade and tangent rear, graduated in 100 meter increments from 100 to 500 meters. The rifle was operated by a two-man crew of a gunner and ammunition bearer, who were both trained to fire the weapon. The high recoil of the rifle was very hard on the firer, sometimes breaking the collar bone or dislocating the shoulder.

The armour piercing hardened steel cored 13.2 x 92mm (.525-inch) semi-rimmed cartridge, often simply called "13 mm", was originally planned for a new, heavy Maxim MG.18 water-cooled machine gun, the Tank und Flieger (TuF) meaning for use against "tank and aircraft", which was under development and to be fielded in 1919. The round’s weighed 51.5g (795gn)with an initial velocity of 780m/sec (2,650ft/sec).

Friday, March 2, 2012

Galil assault rifle

Galil ARM 5.56mm. The only differences from the Galil AR are the folding bipod andcarrying handle

Same rifle, with bipods unfolded. Insert shows the left-side fire selector /safety switch with Hebrew markings.

The experience, gained by the Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) during the Six-days war of 1967, showed the deficiencies of the FN FAL rifles, which were the main armament of the IDF infantry. The FAL rifles were too sensitive to fine sand and dust of Arab deserts, and too long and bulky to carry and maneuver. On the other hand, the same war showed the advantages of the Kalashnikov AK-47 assault rifles, used by Arab infantry with great success. After the end of this war IDF decided to develop a new assault rifle, which will eventually replace the FN FAL battle rifles and some of the UZI submachine guns. It was also decided that the new assault rifle should be built around the new American low-impulse cartridge, known as 5.56x45 mm. During the late 1960s the IDF tested two rival designs, one of the Uziel Gal, and the other of the Israel Galili. The latter design, based on the Finnish Valmet Rk.62 assault rifle (a license-built AK-47 clone), eventually won the competition and was selected as a new IDF assault rifle in the 1973, but its actual adoption was delayed by the next Israeli-Arab Yom Kippur war of the 1973. The machinery and documentation package was bought from Valmet and transferred to the state owned Israel Military Industries (IMI) company. There are some rumors that the first production Galil rifles were built on the Valmet-made receivers. The basic Galil rifle later evolved into several configurations, including the full-size 5.56mm AR and ARM assault rifles, compact 5.56mm SAR rifle for the tank and vehicle crews, 7.62mm NATO AR selective fire and 7.62mm NATO semi-automatic Galatz sniper rifle, 5.56mm MAR subcompact assault rifle, also known as Micro-Galil, and some othermodifications, like the unsuccessful .30 Carbine Magal police rifle.

Galil AR 7.62mm. Note the longer barrel and deeper magazine

Galil SAR 5.56mm with shorter barrel (with older type brownish color wooden forearm)

While being a successful weapon, the Galil was not widely issued to the IDF during its lifetime, because during the late 1960s and early 1970s Israel received large shipments of the US M16 and CAR-15 assault rifles at the very low prices. M16 rifles became the major armament of the IDF, with the Galils mostly issued to the Armored corps, Artillery corps and some units of the Israeli Air Forces. The Galil rifles were exported to the various South American, African and Asian countries. Estonia also received some Galil rifles in the early 2000s. The slightly modified Galil rifle is manufactured by the South African Vektor company, a division of the DENEL. Those models included the R-4 (Galil AR), R-5(Galil SAR) and R-6 (Galil MAR) assault rifles, and are used by the South African Military. Another offspring of the Galil is the Croatian APS-95 assault rifle. The semi-automatic only versions of the both 5.56mm and 7.62mm Galil AR rifles were widely sold to both domestic and foreign civilian and law enforcement markets.

Galil MAR 5.56mm, or Micro-Galil. The most modern Galil derivative.

In general, the Galil rifles are fine weapons,but somewhat heavy and expensive to manufacture.

Technical description.
Basically, the Galil assault rifle can be described as a modified Kalashnikov AK-47 design. The key differences between the Galil and the AK-47are as follows. The Galil featured a machined steel receivers of the original AK-47 rifles, but of slightly different shape. The AK-47-style safety selectors witch at the right side of the gun is complemented by the additional smaller switch at the left side of the receiver, above the pistol handle. The cocking handle is bent upward, so it can be operated with either hand. The sights of the Galil featured a front hooded post, mounted on the gas block, with the rear diopter sight, mounted on the receiver top cover. Rear sight is of the flip-up type, with settings for 300 and 500 meters. Additional folding night sights with luminous inserts can be raised into position, which allows to aim the gun in the low light conditions at the ranges of up to 100 meters. The barrel and the flashhider can be used to launch the rifle grenades from the barrel, using the blancor live cartridges (depending on the rifle grenade type). The Galil ARM also features a folding detachable bipods and a carrying handle. The bipod base incorporates a bottle opener and a wire cutter. The standard folding buttstock is patterned after FN FAL Para, folds to the right to save the space. Some of the late production Micro-Galil (MAR) rifles also are fitted with the Picatinny-type rail, which allows to mount various sighting devices. Standard AR and ARM rifles can be fitted with scope mounting rail on the left side of the receiver. All 5.56mm Galil rifles are fed using proprietary 35 or 50 rounds curved box magazines with AK-47 style locking. M16-type magazines can be used via the special adapter. 7.62mm Galil rifles are fed using proprietary 25 rounds box magazines. Civilian semi-automatic Galil variants sometimes are fitted with10 rounds magazines to comply with local firearms laws.

Galil AR / ARM Galil AR / ARM Galil SAR Galil MAR
Caliber 7.62x51mm NATO 5.56x45mm NATO
Overall length (stock open / folded) 1050 / 810 mm 979 / 742 mm 840 / 614 mm 690 / 445 mm
Barrel length 535 mm 460 mm 332 mm 195 mm
Weight, empty 4 kg (without bipod an carrying handle) 3.95 kg (4.35 kg ARM) 3.75 kg 2.95 kg
Magazine capacity 25 rounds 35 or 50 rounds 35 rounds
Rate of fire 650 rounds per minute 650 rounds per minute 650 rounds per minute 600 - 750 rounds per minute
Effective range of fire 500 - 600 meters 450 meters 300 meters 150-200 meters

Thursday, March 1, 2012

M1939 (61-K) 37 mm automatic air defense gun

37-mm automatic anti-aircraft gun 61-K in Saint Petersburg Artillery museum

37 mm automatic air defense gun M1939 (61-K) (Russian: 37-мм автоматическая зенитная пушка образца 1939 года (61-К)) was a Soviet 37 mm caliber anti-aircraft gun developed during the late 1930s and used during World War II. The land based version was replaced in Soviet service by the ZSU-57-2 during the 1950s. Guns of this type were successfully used throughout the Eastern Front against dive bombers and other low- and medium-altitude targets. It also had some usefulness against lightly armored ground targets. Crews of the 37 mm AD guns shot down 14,657 Axis planes. The mean quantity of 37 mm ammunition to shoot down one enemy plane was 905 rounds.

Soviet '''M1939''' 37 mm AA gun

The Soviet Navy purchased a number of Bofors 25 mm Model 1933 guns in 1935, trials of the weapon were successful and it was decided to develop a 45 mm version of the weapon designated the 49-K. The development under the guidance of leading Soviet designers M. N. Loginov, I. A. Lyamin and L. V. Lyuliev was successful, but the army thought that the 45 mm calibre was a little too large for an automatic field weapon. In January 1938 Artillery Factory Number 8 in Kaliningrad was ordered to develop a 37 mm weapon based on the same design. The task was fulfilled by the chief designer of the Factory Mikhail Loginov and his assistant Lev Loktev. Firing trials of the new 61-K were conducted in October 1938.

Competitive firing trials were conducted in 1940 between the 61-K and the Bofors 40 mm/56. They found that there were no substantial differences between them.

Land version

The weapon was initially installed as a single barrel weapon on a four wheeled ZU-7 carriage, and was soon ready for service. An initial order for 900 units was placed. The gun was operated by a crew of eight men. A total of 200 rounds of ammunition were carried which were fed into the gun in five round clips. Total Soviet production was around 20,000 units, ending in 1945. However, it has also been produced in Poland, China and North Korea.

61-K in Poznan citadel, Poland.

Armour penetration of the armour-piercing (AP) rounds is reported as 37 millimeters of Rolled homogeneous armour (RHA) at 60°at 500 meters range and 28 millimeters of RHA at 90° at 1500 meters range.

Naval version

The naval mounting was produced as the 70K, and had entered service before the German invasion of the Soviet Union replacing the semi-automatic 45 mm/46 21-K on many ships. It was fitted in large numbers to Soviet ships during the Second World War, notably the T301 class minesweeper. The V70K was produced until 1955, with a total of 3,113 built.
V-11 as a memorial to the defenders of Seraya Loshad fort

V-11 as a memorial to the defenders of Seraya Loshad fort

One drawback was that the 70K required a barrel change after every 100 rounds fired. To improve on this, a twin barreled water cooled mount, the V-11 (called "W-11" in East Germany and Poland because of different Cyrillic trasliteration), entered service in 1946, and was in production until 1957. A total of 1,872 V-11 mounts were built.

After this an 85-caliber 100 mm (3.9 in) anti-aircraft mounts long version, the 45 mm/85, was developed and accepted into service in 1954, it was deployed in twin and quad turrets on a number of classes of vessels, including the Neustrashimy, Kildin and Kotlin class destroyers. However it was later replaced with the ZIF-31 twin 57 mm mounting.

The 37 mm twin mounting was exported to China where it was manufactured and used extensively, as the "Type 65". A turret based version was produced from the late 1980s called the "Type 76" or H/PJA 76.


The ZSU-37 was developed late in the Second World War, it was a single 37 mm gun mounted in a large open turret on the chassis of the SU-76 self propelled gun.


Related Posts with Thumbnails