Friday, May 27, 2011

Experimental Airplanes by Arado during WW2

Arado Ar E.381

The diminuitive Ar E.381 can be seen carried on the underside of this Ar 234 jet-powered bomber.

The Ar E.381-series of prototypes was submitted in 1944 for review by the German Air Ministry. Whilst a plethora of companies (including Messerschmitt and Sombold) were competing to fulfill the role of what was to be dubbed "the parasite fighter" - small but fast rocket-powered fighters - the Arado Ar E.381 showed promise.

The Ar E.381 went through three major engineering design revisions, from the I to the II and finally to the III variant. Through the progression, the fuselage design was enlarged ever more so and streamlined to a more acceptable form. In the end, the Ar E.381 III would be the closest version to come close to production with the ability to be carried underneath an Arado Ar 234C-3 jet bomber and armed with six RZ65 or 73 type spin-stabilized rockets.

Perhaps the most interesting design element of the Ar E.381 III was the fact that the pilot was confined in the prone position once inside of the vehicle, allowing the design to be truly aerodynamic and not required the use of a true 'cockpit' in that sense.

In concept, the Ar E.381 III would be attached to the underside of the Ar 234 bomber, taken to the desired altitude (reported about 3,281 feet or 1,000 meters) and released. From there, the Ar E.381 III would go into a dive and achieve a momentous speed of up to 510mph. For a second run, the Ar E.381 could ignite its rocket booster and fly in for another attacking pass.t motor. Once fuel was spent, the system would have to glide home and land under its own power, on a single skid running along the bottom of the fuselage (a braking parachute was also deployed). At most, an Ar E.381III pilot could conceivably make two passes at a bomber formation before running out of fuel.

The Ar E.381 was built to be simplistic, therefore all amenities such as heating were provided by the carrier craft until departure from the main unit. This engineering kept the Ar E.381 light and non-complicated to produce. The system itself could be taken apart into several major components consisting of the wing assembly, the fuselage and the tail section.

In all, several mockups and airframes were constructed for further testing, with a reported unmanned air-towed version undergoing further trials but ultimately the Ar E.381 remained an unfinished concept at best. In the end, the German Air Ministry would not pursue the parasite aircraft idea to the end.

Length: 18.70ft (5.70m)
Width: 16.57ft (5.05m)
Height: 4.95ft (1.51m)
Max Speed: 556mph (895kmh; 483kts) Rate-of-Climb: 0ft/min (0m/min)
Service Ceiling: 3,281ft (1,000m; 0.6miles)

Accommodation: 1
Hardpoints: 1
Empty Weight: 0lbs (0kg)
MTOW: 3,307lbs (1,500kg)

Engine(s): 1 x Walter HWK 509B rocket motor

Armament Suite:
1 x 30mm cannon
6 x RZ65 OR 73 spin-stabilized air-to-air rockets

Arado Ar E.530

The Arado E.530 lost out to the Messerschmitt Zwilling series of similar design.

The idea of twin fuselage aircraft was always in the minds of military aircraft engineers throughout the Second World War. Conceivably, these systems would offer up double the performance and capabilities of their single fuselage counterparts and receive the ability to take on roles outside of their intended realms. The North American F-82 "Twin-Mustang" was really the only successful venture into this type of aircraft mating, though many attempts - such as this E.530 by Arado Flugzeuwerke were proposed. In Germany, this style of aircraft was typified with the designation of "Zwilling" meaning "twin".

The E.530 was design for comparison against the Arado Ar 440 but resembled the proposed Bf 109Z series. Both fuselage portions of the E.530 were pencil-like and joined by a central wing structure and an aft elevator horizontal surface. Wings were straight-edged, similar to that on the Messerschmitt Bf 109 series. Envisioned as a single-seat, fast bomber, the E.530 could have conceivably succeeded in its intended role based on the power of the conceived powerplant (consisting of a pair of Daimler-Benz DB 603 G series piston engines) and the aircraft's overall size and tubular shape. Crew accommodation amounted to one pilot positioned in the port-side fuselage which was to also contain a pressurized cockpit allowing high-altitude exposure. In terms of armament, offensive and defensive firepower were not included in the design. Instead, the potency of the E.530 system lay in the ability for the aircraft to carry a single 1,100lb bomb in an under wing rack positioned directly center between the two fuselages. Beyond that, the E.530 had no other option but to flee any direct encounters.
When compared with the Messerschmitt Bf 109Z "Zwilling" design, logistics in construction of the E.530 design would have been problematic. Whereas the Bf 109Z could depend on a surplus of production parts already in circulation (as it was closely related to the base Bf 109 fighter), the E.530 was effectively an all-new design needing specialized parts to complete its construction on any level. As a result, the Arado Ar E.530 design was not followed up on and - considering the supply demands for Germany at the time - it is no doubt that the E.530 would have had a hard time existing in a nation facing a defensive battle against Allied might. 

Arado Ar E.561 Heavy Fighter

The Arado Ar E.561 was a complicated design best left to the imagination.

The Arado Ar E.561 was on the drawing boards as early as 1937. Classified as a heavy fighter, the type would have lived and died via its combination of firepower and performance. World War 2 brought about the need for purpose-built bomber destroyers and heavy fighters capable of bringing down most anything in the skies. The Ar E.561 was envisioned to be just that, however, a complicated engine arrangement no doubt stalled the project to the point that it became one of many of the Luftwaffe's aircraft creations throughout the war - nothing more than an intriguing paper airplane design.

The Arado Ar E.561 was designed around a stout fuselage which contained seating accommodation for three of the four crew (the fourth crewmember was a gunner manning the lower-rear machine guns). Though the E.561 gave the appearance of having two engines - one per wing - in extended nacelle positions, the engines were actually placed within in the center portion of the fuselage. The variable-pitch propellers were to be operated by these rear-mounted engines via shafts running across the wing roots and into the pseudo-nacelles extending beyond the leading edges. The idea behind this type of arrangement lay in the thinking that should one engine experience failure whilst in flight, then the single operational engine would be able to switch over and run both propellers - basically allowing the aircraft to continue to fly without the total loss of any one engine. This arrangement was, however, only limited to the operation of both engines at half-speed which would have deteriorated performance of the large aircraft substantially. The rear-mounted, shaft-controlled propeller system design idea was only operationally attempted (with modest success) in the underpowered Bell P-39 Airacobra product - that being a single-seat lightweight fighter type. The tail section of the E.561 followed suit with that as found on the Messerschmitt Bf 110 "Destroyer" - and aircraft to which the E.561 would have shared some similarities to - featuring two vertical tail surfaces across a large spanning horizontal plane.

Armament was a combination of offensive and defensive systems. 4 x MG 151 20mm cannons would have been arranged just under the cockpit seating area for a devastating forward offensive punch. The rear of the craft would have been defended by a pair of 13mm heavy caliber machine guns - two controlled from a rear-facing dorsal cockpit position and the other from a ventral downward rear-facing gun position at rear.

Due to its "drawing board-only" existence, no performance data of the E.561 was available. In any case, it most likely would have been a bloated "tweener" design without the performance specs to take on the nimble single-seat fighters of the Allies but might have been a formidable bomber-destroying platform. The attempt at ingenuity in having the engines mounted in the fuselage allowed for a more streamlined shape would have presented a very complicated internal working for engineers to devise effectively given the constraints of a wartime Germany. 

Armament Suite:
4 x MG 151 20mm cannons in nose
2 x 13mm machine guns in rear cockpit
2 x 13mm machine guns in aft ventral station

Arado Ar E.560 Medium-Range Tactical Bomber

The Arado E.560 would have been an impressive machine had it been completed and flown before the end of the war.
The Arado E.560 series of developmental high-speed jet bombers saw a large evolution on paper. Design of the platform centered around the closing days of the Second World War and showed the extent to which the Germans were planning on utilizing the relatively newfound technology of the turbojet to deliver munitions against Allied targets through unquestioned speed and cutting edge design. Fortunately for the Allies, many of these systems fell by the wayside as Germany was playing a defensive game by war's end. The E.560 was such an idea, developed in the closing weeks of World War 2 - that any information on the machine survived is a bonus.

From an external perspective, it becomes easy to see the similarities inherent in the E.560 design, showcasing much the same look as the more famous Arado jet product - the Ar 234 "Blitz" - a single-seat twin engine reconnaissance/bomber aircraft that actually saw production by war's end. The E.560 showed off a similar glazed cockpit at the extreme forward of the fuselage and contained a seating arrangement for two personnel in a pressurized cockpit (for high-altitude work). The engines were held under each wing and differed by developmental model (described in better detail later in this article). Wings were of a swept-back variety which in itself was becoming quite a revolutionary step towards the modern jet fighter. A tricycle undercarriage landing gear system also figured prominently into the design. The Arado Ar E.560 series was envisioned - and classified - as a high-speed tactical bomber of medium range capability, able to mount a substantial internal bomb load. Other unique design features included communications equipment and automatic course correction systems.

The Arado E.560/2 series would have featured twin BMW 803 series double radial piston engines rated at about 4,000 horsepower each. Each engine would power twin contra-rotating blades and develop a maximum speed of well over 500 miles per hour. This initial model was designed with a T-style tail assembly and the base two-man cockpit. The Arado E.560/4 was next in line though this time, the design featured 4 x BMW brand 003E turbojet engines rated at 2,646lbs of thrust each - two engines per wing. The tail was redesigned to feature a more traditional empennage though most everything else of the base E.560/2 remained the same.

The next 560 model of note became the E.560/7 featuring 2 x BMW 028 turboprop engines rated at 6,200 horsepower each - one engine to a wing. This was followed by the truly ambitious E.560/8 which sported an impressive 6 x BMW 003 series turbojet engines at 1,984lbs of thrust a piece. Two engines would have been clusters inboard near the wing root with single engine mountings held outboard. A bulged bomb bay is also noteworthy here. The final design model of note became the E.560/11. This aircraft sported 4 x BMW 018 model turbojet engines at 5,071lbs of thrust apiece, the aforementioned two-man cockpit, single vertical tail surface and swept-back wings. Each wing held two engines apiece. This particular model also focused more in on defensive armament and included twin forward-firing fixed MG 151/20mm cannons, 2 x rear-firing fixed MG 151/20 cannons and a remote controlled MG 151 20mm cannon fired via a periscope (similar to the tail armament of the Arado Ar 234 mentioned at the top of the article). By the time of this design, the bomb load was an impressive 8,818lbs of internal ordnance.

It is hard to say with any level of certainty how the Arado E.560 would have fared in any of these forms. The Ar 234 was a relatively successful foray into the world of turbojet power and met with modest success in the closing months of service that it had so it leads one to believe that the potential in the Ar E.560 could actually be achieved should more time been given to development of the project. In any case, with Germany on its heels, machines such as this potentially war-changing high-speed bomber might have played a great role in disrupting the advances of the Allied cause. At any rate, the E.560 would go down as many of the "what-if" products proposed by the Reich throughout the war and - more specifically - in the closing months of the great conflict. For certain, the air war would have taken on a whole new look might these machines ever have squared off with the Allied offerings available at the time. 

Arado Ar E.580 Single-Seat Jet Fighter

The E.580 was intended to compete with the Heinkel He 162 Volksjager design - the latter eventually winning out.

Once the Volksjager competition came around in 1944, Arado Flugzeugwerke went back to a 1943 design it had had and touched it up some, producing the E.580 design model. This aircraft was to be a single-seat, single-engine jet fighter to help in defense of the Reich and eventually turn the tide of the Allied advance in the war. Designed with simplicity in mind (in both construction methods and pilot operation), the E.580 was Arado's answer for the new RLM proposal. Unfortunately for Arado, the Heinkel He 162 won out - and the E.580 became paper history.


Outwardly, the E.580 shared some similarities to the Heinkel design. As in the Heinkel He 162, the engine of the E.580 series sat atop the fuselage, wings were of a straight-line design (no sweep), all armament was kept in the nose, a tricycle undercarriage was featured (a growing novel concept of new aircraft designs for the time) and the empennage was detailed by the split-vertical fin arrangement. The engine layout of the E.580 - as opposed to the layout found on the He 162 - appeared more integrated into the fuselage design with the rear of the pilot's canopy seemingly disappearing into the jet intake. The engine selected would have been the BMW 003A-1 series turbojet. How this layout would have eventually fared creates some skepticism as the canopy would have no doubt blocked airflow into the intake. Armament was never finalized but proposed weaponry would have been either a pair of MK 108 30mm cannons or MG 151/20 20mm cannons. In either case, these would have been situated in the nose and were potent enough to contend with both fighter and bomber alike.

The Heinkel He 162 eventually won the competition and - by this author's judgment - rightfully so. By all accounts it was the more sound design on paper with the He 162 eventually seeing production in limited numbers. Both design attempts - it should be noted - were early forays into single-engine jet aircraft designs. How the E.580 would have fared in real combat is left up to the imagination.  

Specifications for the Arado Ar E.580
Length: 25.79ft (7.86m)
Width: 25.00ft (7.62m)

Maximum Speed: 462mph (744kmh; 402kts)

Armament Suite:
2 x MG 151/20 20mm cannons OR 2 x MK 108 30mm cannons n nose.

Accommodation: 1

Engine(s): 1 x BMW 003A-1 turbojet engine.

Arado Ar E.555 Long-Range / High-Speed Bomber

Development into the Arado Ar E.555 series was halted in December of 1944, no doubt due to the advance of the Allies.

Arado proposed this E.555 flying wing concept towards the end of 1943 as a high-speed long-range bomber. The flying wing concept had eluded aircraft engineers for decades but it was seen as a potentially stable design allowing for greater payloads and control. Arado produced no fewer than 15 flying wing E.555 designs of various types for the RLM throughout 1944 - each with considerable groundbreaking features.

The base E.555 was the E.555-1, an all-metal flying wing concept with a delta shape. Two large vertical fin surfaces were attached to either wing assembly with the fuselage contained in the forward-most portion of the gull-like wing assemblies. The engines were to be a cluster of six BMW 003A series turbojets held slightly off of the fuselage and maintained in the aft area of the design. Requirements stated that this new bomber possess the ability to carry upwards of 8,818lbs and thus the E.555-1 was designed with a large under-fuselage internal bomb bay. The flying wing concept also played well into the design requirement of long range, needing to meet some 3,107 miles of flight time. The cockpit was pressurized to allow for high altitude work. It is assumed no fewer than 3 personnel would crew the system as there was a need for a pilot, copilot, and at least one gunner. Landing gears were of the tricycle type now beginning to take hold in newer aircraft designs. The E.555 would have utilized such a layout with the wing-installed gears were tandem for a total of four wheels to a gear. The nose gear was of a single arrangement mounting two wheels side-by-side.

Defensive armament consisted of a remote-controlled dorsal turret mounting twin MG 151/20 20mm cannons. This turret was located just aft of the cockpit and had a 360 degree rotation plus elevation. A second turret was mounted at the rear of the fuselage/wing area and was remote-controlled by a crew member via periscope. This position also mounted twin MG 151/20 20mm cannons and the gunner sat in his position just aft of the dorsal turret behind the cockpit. Fixed forward-firing MK 103 30mm cannons were added to either wing root (one cannon per side) to round out the armament.

The E.555 was planned in many forms covering E.555-1 to E.555-11 (14). Each version differed mainly in powerplant used, either of BMW or Heinkel branding. Beyond that, the wing design changed somewhat between designs and some were featured with twin tail booms or a traditional wing as opposed to the base flying wing originally envisioned. E.555-1 featured 6 x BMW 003 series turbojet engines, all mounted in a cluster above and at the extreme aft of the fuselage. E.555-2 was to be fitted with just four turbojet engines but these of Heinkel brand (He S 011). E.555-3 was designed with 2 x BMW 018 series engines while E.555-4 saw 3 x BMW 018 fitted. E.555-6 also had 3 x BMW 018 engines but featured a redesign of the wing elements. E.555-7 followed along the lines of the E.555-1 design but had 3 x BMW 018 engines instead of six with some subtle changes to the wing area. E.555-8a/8b saw a more radical take on the E.555 series design as a whole. It featured a swept-back wing surface area but twin tail booms ala the Lockheed P-38 Lightning, joined the ends by a single horizontal surface. E.555-9 was similar to this but the booms were not connect at the ends and featured outboard elevators. E.555-10 was similar to -9 but had outboard and inboard elevators to each tail boom end. E.555-11 was perhaps the most modern of all the E.555 design attempts as a complete traditional tail section was used with the 4 x BMW 018 engines all mounted atop the fuselage along the middle of the fuselage. Wings were still kept as swept-back. Along with the base E.555-1, the E.555-11 was perhaps the design with most promise.

By the end of 1944, the RLM gave up on the E.555 and ordered Arado to do the same. It is assumed because of the strides made by the Allies in capturing more and more German strongholds that resources needed to be put into a defensive war consisting primarily of fighters than bombers. Seeing it that the E.555's primary role was that of bomber and little else, there was no need to continually put more time, money and effort into a system that was limited in scope for the type of war Germany needed to fight by 1945. 

Arado Ar E.581.4 Single-Seat Jet Fighter
The proposed E.581.4 featured a single turbojet engine with an split-intake mounted in the lower fuselage.

The Arado Ar E.581.4 was conceived of as a single-seat jet fighter utilizing a delta-wing shape. The system was not a "true" flying wing design in that it made use of twin vertical tail surfaces at the trailing edges. The system was identifiably different by the design of the lower fuselage - itself a deep, hull-like construction featuring large split intake openings just under the cockpit with the exhaust located at the extreme aft. The single HeS 0111 turbojet engine would have made up most of the internal workings of the fuselage underside. Vertical surface systems were located to either side of the engine exhaust on the high-mounted main wing elements. The position of the cockpit was to have allowed for good all-around vision though downward views would have suffered significantly no doubt due to the large wing surface area. Proposed armament consisted of a pair of Mk 108 30mm cannons mounted at both wing roots. The undercarriage was intended to be of a tricycle arrangement with the main gears folding up into the wings themselves and the nose gear recessing into the fuselage underside. Entry into the cockpit was a hinged door making up the largest canopy portion, opening from left to right.

Length: 18.24ft (5.56m)
Width: 26.25ft (8.00m)

Maximum Speed: 531mph (854kmh; 461kts)

Armament Suite:
2 x MK 108 30mm cannons

Accommodation: 1

Engine(s): 1 x HeS 011 turbojet engine.

Arado Ar E.500

The E.500 was a proposed heavy fighter design put forth by Arado Flugzeugwerke of Germany. The system was designed as early as 1936 and featured a crew of four consisting of a pilot, co-pilot, dorsal turret gunner and ventral gun station gunner. The project advanced beyond the design stage as a full scale mock-up was created before the project's eventual cancellation.

A full-size mock-up of the E.500 was created before development stopped on the project altogether.

Design-wise, the E.500 was to be built around a twin-boom philosophy. The wings were high-mounted, running through each engine nacelle and spanning across the top of the gondola-style fuselage. The pilot and co-pilot were afforded good views outside their aircraft - particularly to the front, above and left and right sides thanks to the position of the cockpit at the extreme forward of the fuselage. The dorsal gunner sat in a seat directly behind the cockpit cabin and controlled a pair of 20mm Rh LB 202 series cannons. His vision was adequate as well. The fourth crewmember would have managed a ventral gun position in the lower part of the gondola. This gunner would lay in the prone position and utilize a periscope for aiming and firing.

Engines were intended to be fitted in the forward portion of the booms. The nacelles would run right into the booms which extended to the extreme aft of the aircraft. The tail booms were not joined but instead given independent elevators and vertical tail surfaces. The engines were envisioned as a pair of Daimler-Benz DB 603 series engines.

In any case, the design was quite ambitious by 1930's standards. It remains to be seen whether this system would have performed well in the intended role of heavy fighter. With four crew members, heavy armament, an oversized fuselage and large wing area, the E.500 design would have a decent enough time against Allied bombers but would suffer greatly against the more agile fighter types designed in the 1940's.


Accommodation: 4


Engine(s): 2 x Daimler-Benz DB 603 engines.

Armament Suite:

2 x Rh LB 202 20mm cannons in dorsal turret

2 x cannons in ventral gun position controlled through periscope.

Arado Ar E.654 (Kampfzerstorer / Skorpion) Heavy Fighter / Bomber Destroyer

The E.654 received its Skorpion moniker from the distinctive design of its tail.

The Arado Ar E.654 was proposed as a heavy fighter / destroyer platform designed from another Arado product - the Ar 240. Though the Ar 240 model eventually saw operational service with the Luftwaffe (albeit in limited numbers), the Ar E.654 would never see the light of day. Its unconventional engine arrangement provided some technological barriers to contend with so much so that the complex system was eventually shelved altogether.
The E.654 maintained some visual similarities to the Ar 240 with two wing-mounted engine nacelles, a crew of two and a long streamlined fuselage. Whereas the Ar 240 held its Daimler-Benz engines wholly in the wing nacelles, the E.654 attempted to utilize a more complex approach in order to maximize overall streamlining and benefit engine protection. The E.654 was designed to house the twin Daimler-Benz DB 614 OR 627 series engines within the fuselage itself while running the propellers via multiple gear shafts. This approach was highly apparent in the general design of the exterior of the aircraft as it would not have exhibited quite the large nacelles as those found on contemporary systems. Additionally, keeping the engine within the fuselage added some element of protection to the units as the fuselage was generally the most well-protected part of any aircraft, able to sustain large amounts of damage before losing integrity. The smaller nacelles also provided for better side visibility over the engines themselves, an issue apparent in the design of the Ar 240, that aircraft sporting its large wing-mounted engines to either side of the cockpit. A standard landing gear system was envisioned with the main gears recessing into each nacelle and a retractable tail wheel operating under the rearward portion of the fuselage. The tail section was dominated by a very distinguishable arrangement featuring a high-mounted tailplane with a protruding appendage - an interesting design approach even for this time.
The cockpit was of a glazed variety, again following the lead of the Ar 240 before it. The seating area was held well-forward in the fuselage providing exceptional views outward, above and down. The pilot sat extreme forward with the gunner seated directly behind in a back-to-back seating arrangement. The gunner would have operated the rear-ward facing machine guns through a periscope system.

At the heart of any heavy fighter was its offensive armament and the E.654 did not disappoint. A battery of 6 x Mk 103 series 30mm heavy cannons was arranged in groups of three in bulges on either side of the lower fuselage. Defensively, the E.654 utilized a system similar to the Arado Ar 240 aircraft - with the rear gunner controlling a dorsal and ventral turret (each fitted with 2 x MG 131 series 13mm heavy machine guns) in recessed positions near the base top and bottom positions of the empennage.

In all respects, the E.654 would have been a serviceable aircraft but the complexity inherent in the engine layout and operation doomed the type to the drawing board - similar to the fate that fell the E.561 proposal. Getting materials and parts for such a complex system proved too much for Luftwaffe technicians to address - especially when one considers the defensive war Germany was becoming embroiled in. It seems that the multi-shaft arrangement of the E.654's design would have developed other engineering obstacles as well with most of the issues no doubt related to potential vibration caused by the engine and shaft layout and maintaining the proper level of power generated at the engine, which would then have to be translated through the shaft and eventually to the propeller.

The E.654 received an internal project name of "Skorpion", no doubt due to the stinger-like protrusion at the top of the tail fin. It was also known by the descriptive name of "Kampfzerstorer". Arado designer Walter Blume headed up the project.

Specifications for the Arado Ar E.654 (Kampfzerstorer / Skorpion)

Length: 42.03ft (12.81m)
Width: 47.05ft (14.34m)
Height: 12.96ft (3.95m)

Armament Suite:
6 x MK 103 fixed-forward cannons in wings
2 x MG 131 13mm machine guns in dorsal turret (periscope aiming)
2 x MG 131 13mm machine guns in ventral turret (periscope aiming)

Accommodation: 2

Engine(s): 2 x Daimler-Benz DB 614 OR DB 627 engines.

Arado Ar TEW 16/43-23 Jet-Powered Fighter Aircraft

The Arado TEW 16/43-23 saw its end when priority was given to the Ar 234 Blitz.

The single-seat, jet-powered Arado Ar TEW 16/43-23 design was penciled sometime in 1943. Categorized as a fighter, the type might have been an impressive addition to the ranks of the Luftwaffe where jet-powered aircraft were beginning to take a larger priority over their piston-powered brethren. Regardless, the potential of the Ar TEW 16/43-23 was never realized for the Arado firm pressed forward with their other revolutionary single-seat, jet-powered bomber design - the Ar 234 "Blitz" (or "Lightning").

The aircraft featured a pair of underwing Heinkel He S 011 series turbojets in streamlined nacelles. The main wing assemblies were fitted about the midway point of the fuselage and were also high-mounted to allow for clearance of the engines. Each wing system sported a good deal of leading edge sweep as well as soft sweep along the trailing edge, both eventually tapering off at rounded wingtips. The empennage was made up of a single vertical tail fin to which a pair of horizontal planes were affixed. The tail surfaces also made use of sweep and capped with rounded ends. The pressurized cockpit was held well-forward in the design to which the pilot would have sat under a large two-piece canopy and behind a short nose-cone assembly. The raised fuselage spine would almost certainly have curtailed any visibility to the critical rear areas. The tricycle undercarriage was completely retractable and made up of two single-wheeled main landing gear legs recessing into the wings just inboard of each engine and a single-wheeled nose landing gear leg recessing forward into the nose cone. The nose wheel would have rotated 90 degrees to lay flat. The long streamlined fuselage was designed to house the three large internal fuel tanks necessary to feed the early generation of thirsty turbojet engines.

Armament was relatively modest and all systems were logically contained under the fuselage nose. This would have been comprised of a pair of MG 213/20 20mm cannons complimented by a single MG 151/15 15mm machine gun. Beyond that, no other forms of ordnance carrying were noted.

Performance was purely speculative and included an estimated stop speed of 572 miles per hour as well as a service ceiling of 39,370 feet. Dimensions were made up of a 34.9 foot wingspan, a 40.1 foot length and an 8.9 foot height.

The Arado TEW 16/43-23 saw its end when priority was given to the Ar 234 Blitz.

Specifications for the Arado Ar TEW 16/43-23

Length: 40.03ft (12.2m)
Width: 34.78ft (10.60m)
Height: 8.83ft (2.69m)

Maximum Speed: 572mph (920kmh; 497kts)
Rate-of-Climb: 0ft/min (0m/min)
Service Ceiling: 39,370ft (12,000m; 7.5miles)

Armament Suite:
1 x MG 151/15 15mm cannon under the nose
2 x MG 213/20 20mm cannons under the nose
Accommodation: 1
Maximum Take-Off Weight:15,432lbs (7,000kg)

Engine(s): 2 x Heinkel He S 011 turbojet engines.

Arado Ar TEW 16/43-19 Multi-Role Aircraft

The success of the Arado 234 and Messerschmitt 262 ended the pursuit of the Arado Ar TEW 16/43-19 multirole series.

With development of the advanced twin-engine, jet-powered Ar 234 "Blitz" bomber coming along, the Arado firm turned its attention to a more advanced jet aircraft with a multi-role capability in mind. The TEW 16/43-19 would have been produced in five distinct versions, each serving a dedicated purpose but utilizing the same basic airframe to save on cost, and was composed of the "Schnellbomber" high-speed bomber, the "Zerstorer" destroyer, the "Nachtjager" night-fighter, the "Schlechtwetterjager" adverse weather fighter and the "Aufklarer" reconnaissance platform. Despite the promising nature of the TEW 16/43-19 study (at least on paper), the equally promising development and arrival of the Messerschmitt Me 262 jet-powered fighter and the Ar 234 bomber meant that the need for the multirole design was no longer there. As such, the TEW 16/43-19 was relegated to history as one of the many German "paper" aircraft on file.

Design of the TEW 16/43-19 was decidedly Arado, even borrowing much of its external look and layout from the Arado Ar 234 before it. The pressurized cockpit was situated at the extreme forward end of the slim cylindrical fuselage. There was a crew of two, seated back-to-back under a glazed canopy. Wings were mid-mounted monoplane assemblies with sweep back at greater angles along the leading edges. The trailing edges also featured sweep back but this to a much lesser degree. The wings carried with them a good deal of surface area and tapered somewhat sharply to clipped wing tips. Each wing was to mount a single 3,000lb thrust jet engine of unknown make and model in streamlined underwing nacelles. As a unit, the wings were situated just ahead of amidships, concentrating a good deal of weight for the aircraft in the forward portion of the design. The fuselage tapered off into a conical tip at the extreme aft of the layout and itself would have housed three large internal fuel tanks to feed the hungry jet engines. The empennage was conventional, sporting a rounded edge single vertical tail fin and two swept-back horizontal planes fitted at the base of the fin. Both the main wings and the tail wings featured some level of dihedral (upward angle) when viewed from the front or rear. The undercarriage was to be of a tricycle arrangement, making use of two large, single-wheeled main legs and a single-wheeled nose landing gear leg. All were completely retractable with the main legs folding forward into the wings and the nose leg folding rearwards under and beneath the cockpit floor.

Armament for the TEW 16/43-19 would have varied on the model type. The high-speed "Schnellbomber" was to be fitted with a pair of rear-firing, remotely-controlled MK 213 series cannons to protect the "six". Bomb load was to be 5,512lbs carried as external stores. In additional to conventional ordnance, the high-speed bomber version was also envisioned to carry the Fritz X series of wire-guided missiles.

The "Destroyer" (Zerstorer) model type was to sport a battery of three MK 103 series 30mm cannons along with a pair of MK 213 cannons, all in a ventral pack. This would have been augmented by another pair of MK 213 cannons in the fuselage sides. All implements would have been fixed to fire forward. Additionally, the Destroyer would have mounted a pair of MK 213 cannons in a rear-facing, remote-controlled emplacement in the tail. Bomb load would have been a reduced 2,205lbs of external stores as needed.

The night-fighting "Nachtjager" was to be fitted with a pair of forward-firing MK 108 30mm cannons as well as 3 x MK 213 cannons in a ventral pack. An additional 2 x MK 213 cannons would have been mounted along the fuselage sides while a battery of 2 x MK 108 30mm cannons would have been set to fire at an oblique angle in the upper fuselage. The rear would be protected by a pair of MK 213 cannons remotely-controlled. Because of its night operations nature, a third crewmember would accompany the crew, his position in the rear portion of the fuselage just aft of the three large internal fuel tanks. Radar would have been fitted into a specially-designed nose extension.

Dimensionally, the Arado Ar TEW 16/43-19 would have sported a wingspan up to 53 feet, 2inches with a surface area of 501.6 feet. The fuselage would have measured 59 feet, 1 inch in length. Height would have been approximately 9 feet, 10 inches. A maximum weight of 35,274lbs was envisioned for the craft.

Specifications for the Arado Ar TEW 16/43-19

Length: 59.06ft (18m)
Width: 53.15ft (16.20m)
Height: 9.84ft (3.00m)

Armament Suite:
"Zerstorer" Destroyer:
3 x MK 103 30mm cannons in ventral gun pack
2 x MK 213 cannons in ventral gun pack
2 x MK 213 in fuselage sides (forward-firing)
2 x MK 213 cannons in remote-controlled tail gun position.
Up to 2,205lbs of external ordnance.

"Schnellbomber" High-Speed Bomber:
2 x MK 213 cannons in remote-conteolled tail gun position.
External ordnance in the form of bombs or missiles (Hs 295 Fritz X) envisioned.

"Nachtjager" Night-Fighter:
2 x MK 108 30mm cannons in ventral gun pack
3 x MK 213 cannons in ventral gun pack
2 x MK 213 cannons in fuselage sides (forward-firing).
2 x MK 108 30mm upward-firing cannons in oblique fuselage position.
2 x MK 213 cannons in remote-controlled rear-tail gun position.
Accommodation: 2
Hardpoints: 2
Maximum Take-Off Weight:35,274lbs (16,000kg)

Engine(s): 2 x turbojet engines developing 3,300lbs of thrust each.

Arado Ar TEW 16/43-13 Rocket-Powered Interceptor Aircraft

The TEW 13 series was to be powered by the volatile T-Stoff and C-Stoff rocket fuel combination.

The Arado Ar TEW 16/43-13 was a design concept envisioned as a rocket-propelled interceptor for the German Luftwaffe. The design was put forth by Wilhelm van Nes as one of three possible developments that also included a twin-jet powered aircraft and a jet/rocket-powered hybrid foray.

Design was conventional featuring a low-set monoplane swept-wing arrangement with slight dihedral and affixed to a somewhat portly fuselage. The pilot was seated nearly extreme forward in the design, with good views to the left and right of his aircraft. The forward windscreen view contained some framing and the rear view was blocked by the upper rear fuselage. The nose was capped with an aerodynamic cone assembly. The fuselage was essentially designed to house as much fuel as possible, consisting of the volatile T-Stoff and C-Stoff rocket propellants (also used in the more well-known Messerschmitt Me 163 Komet rocket-propelled interceptor). Power was to be derived from a single Walter-brand HWK 509A series rocket booster taking up the rearward portions of the inner fuselage aft. The tail section was adorned with a single vertical tail surface and appropriate horizontal plane, all with swept surfaces. The rocket propellant exhausted just aft of the tail fin base. Proposed armament for the TEW 16/43-13 was to be a pair of MG 151/20 20mm cannons along with a pair of MK 108 30mm cannons, all mounted in the lower fuselage nose. The armament was spaced in pairs to either side and below the cockpit seating position.

The undercarriage was completely retractable and differentiated from the conventional "tail-dragging" designs by fitting a tricycle arrangement. The arrangement was dominated by two main landing gears mounted under each wing near the wing roots and a nose landing gear recessing forward under the forward cockpit floor. The wheels of this system deserved mention for they were envisioned as spherical implements designed to save space and weight. Each "wheel" was crossed directly through its center at its x-axis and attached on either side to landing gear struts. As such, each landing gear (nose included) was allotted just a single wheel. This design was so unique that it was patented.

Specifications for the Arado Ar TEW 16/43-13

Length: 31.82ft (9.7m)
Width: 29.04ft (8.85m)
Height: 0.00ft (0.00m)

Armament Suite:
2 x MG 151/20 20mm cannons in nose
2 x MK 108 30mm cannons in nose
Accommodation: 1

Engine(s): 1 x Walter HWK 509A rocket engine

Arado Ar TEW 16/43-15 Interceptor / Fighter Aircraft

The Arado Ar TEW 16/43-15 design was a combination jet- and rocket-powered fighter proposal for the German Luftwaffe.

The Arado Ar TEW 16/43-15 concept was born out of an in-house research project studying the possibilities of jet-powered fighter aircraft. The design appeared as early as March of 1943 and became yet another example of the forward-thinking in aircraft technology as sponsored by the many German engineering firms of World War 2. The intent of the Ar TEW 16/43-15 design was to mate a jet engine with rocket-fueled power to complement all-out performance above 32,800 feet. The design never materialized passed the "paper" stage however.

Design was wholly Arado and made use of some distinct features. A pair of low-mounted, swept-back wings were fitted at the center of the tubular fuselage with slab sides. The wings sported some dihedral and featured curved tips. The single pilot would have sat in a pressurized cockpit fitted just aft of a short nose-cone assembly. Vision to the front quadrant from under the single-piece glass canopy would have been excellent. The fuselage tapered off at the rear to which sat a high-mounted "Tee" style tail system sporting two vertical fins. The horizontal tail surfaces were swept while the vertical fins were nearly triangular in shape. Perhaps the most notable design element of the TEW 16/43-15 was its positioning of the jet engine, this mounted along the top of the fuselage spine with the intake wrapped around and aft of the canopy. The engine compartment ran some distance behind amidships and exhausted between the twin vertical tail fins. Fuel for the two powerplants was dispersed about the internal fuselage, in positions both central and aft.

The TEW 16/43-15 was to be another Arado design to make use of the patented DVL 1940 spherical tires. The aircraft would have used these special space-saving wheels across two main landing gear legs and a nose landing gear leg in a tricycle arrangement. The nose landing gear retracted under and forward of the cockpit floor while the main legs retracted into each wing root. Each of the landing gear systems retracted forwards into their respective bays.

Armament was never overlooked on these types of aspiring Luftwaffe fighter designs and the TEW 16/43-15 did not disappoint. Weapons of choice would have been a pair of MG 151/15 15mm cannons or a pair of MG 151/20 20mm cannons. Additional armament could have been a single MK 103 30mm cannon or a pair of MK 108 30mm cannons. The armament was to be centralized along the fuselage sides forward of the wings.

Performance specifications were, of course, estimated. Power could possibly have been derived from a Heinkel-brand He S 011 series jet engine of 2,866lbs thrust. Rocket propulsion was to be a Walter HWK 509A series bi-fuel rocket thruster. The fuel for the thruster consisted of the volatile C-Stoff and T-Stoff fuel combination. A top speed of 572 miles per hour was envisioned as was an optimistic ceiling of 61,600 feet with a range of 745 miles.

Like many of the potential Luftwaffe plans throughout the war however, the TEW 16/43-15 remained the stuff of German dreams. It was never followed up on nor was a prototype ever completed let alone test flown - leaving to the imagination of what impact (if any) this fighter aircraft might have had on the outcome of the war. Needless to say, it was a complex design that would have had to clear many-a-hurdle to see fruition and was perhaps left best on the engineer's drawing board and nothing more. The idea of the jet/rocket-powered fighter lived on for a time in the post-war years but the theory was soon ousted by the advent of afterburning jet-powered engines to achieve the desired results.

Specifications for the Arado Ar TEW 16/43-15

Length: 38.55ft (11.75m)
Width: 33.79ft (10.30m)
Height: 9.19ft (2.80m)

Maximum Speed: 572mph (920kmh; 497kts)
Maximum Range: 746miles (1,200km)
Service Ceiling: 61,680ft (18,800m; 11.7miles)

Armament Suite:
2 x MG 151/15 15mm cannons OR 2 x MG 151/20 20mm cannons in fuselage sides.
1 x MK 103 30mm cannons OR 2 x MK 108 30mm cannons in fuselage sides.
Accommodation: 1
Maximum Take-Off Weight:14,705lbs (6,670kg)

Engine(s): 1 x Heinkel He S 011 turbojet engine developing 2,866lbs of thrust; 1 x Walter HWK 509A bi-fuel rocket engine.

Arado Ar Projekt II Nightfighter / All-Weather Fighter

The proposed Projeckt II featured a crew of two in a pressurized cabin complete with ejection seats.

The Arado Ar Projekt II was a proposed jet-powered fighter of considerable size. It carried a basic classification of nightfighter / all-weather fighter and appeared in paper form towards the end of the European Campaign. The aircraft featured several cutting-edge design aspects that included swept-back wings, wing-mounted jet engines, a pressurized crew cabin (complete with side-by-side seating for two and ejection seats) and a retractable tricycle landing gear system. The main gears would recess into the tubular fuselage while the nose gear disappeared just under the cockpit seating area.

Design was traditional in the jet-fighter sense with an aerodynamic featureless fuselage. The engines were mounted under each wing just past the wing roots and would have been either 2 x HeS 011A series or 2 x BMW 003A series turbojet engines (a performance speed of 466 miles per hour was estimated). Wings were monoplanes and shoulder-mounted high up on the fuselage just aft of the cockpit. The fuselage ended in a point with tail planes also featuring swept back design and a single vertical tail surface. Armament was intended to be 4 x MK 108 series 30mm cannons with two mounted high on the nose and two mounted underneath the nose.

In all, the Arado Ar Projekt II was an ambitious undertaking that most likely would have been limited by Reich production capabilities and turbojet technology. At least on paper, the Projekt II was a promising look into the future of jet-powered air combat and nothing was spared in its design by Arado. The fact that this aircraft (and most other German jet aircraft designs of the time) never even saw prototype construction was a benefit to the Allies and then some.

Length: 56.76ft (17.3m)
Width: 49.15ft (14.98m)

Maximum Speed: 466mph (750kmh; 405kts)

Armament Suite:
2 x MK 108 30mm cannons in upper nose section
2 x MK 108 30mm cannons in lower nose section

Accommodation: 2

Engine(s): 2 x HeS 011A OR 2 x BMW 003A-1 turbojet engines.

Arado Ar Projekt I Nightfighter
Projeckt I was a proposed nightfighter design featuring a two-man crew in a pressurized cockpit.
The Arado "Projekt I" was intended to be a two-man jet-powered night fighter. The aircraft featured a slender yet short fuselage with a delta-wing design extending from the cockpit down to the base of the empennage. The crew of two would have sat side-by-side in a pressurized cockpit offering up decent visibility forward, side and above. Twin vertical tail surfaces were affixed to the trailing edges of each wing assembly. Air for the twin BMW-brand 003A series turbojet engines was to be brought in from an under fuselage intake with exhaust jettisoned from the rear underside of the craft. A tricycle landing gear system was envisioned with the nose gear at extreme forward under the nose and the main gears recessing under each wing. Armament was intended to be a battery of 4 x MK 108 series 30mm cannons - no doubt a match for any Allied bombers it would have faced.

Length: 42.49ft (12.95m)
Width: 60.30ft (18.38m)

Maximum Speed: 497mph (800kmh; 432kts)
Rate-of-Climb: 0ft/min (0m/min)

Armament Suite:
4 x MK 108 30mm cannons in nose

Accommodation: 2

Engine(s): 2 x BMW 003A turbojet engines.


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